Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Journal Articles on Mary Mcleod Bethune

Muhammad, G. E., Dunmeyer, A., Starks, F. D., & Sealey-Ruiz, Y. (2020). Historical voices for             contemporary times: Learning from black women educational theorists to redesign            teaching and teacher education. Theory into Practice, 59(4), 419-428.            ary_Times_Learning_from_Black_Women_Educational_Theorists_to_Redesign_Teachi            ng_and_Teacher_Education

The spirit of both black and brown students should never be ignored and destroyed. Muhammad, Dunmeyer, Starks, and Sealey-Ruiz (2020) suggest that the individual brilliance of all students should be effectively acknowledged despite their physical attributes. Mary McLeod Bethune became one of the most important educational leaders of the 20th century. She was much motivated by equipping youth with essential skills that could help them work and, in return, make a living. Among the skills that Mary McLeod Bethune was concerned with included broom making, sewing, and cooking. Despite her love for educating young people, Mary McLeod Bethune was involved in eradicating people on racial theory. She was an activist who was greatly committed to combat racial violence in American society and fought for equity, which was reflected in her teaching and handling of things. Mary McLeod Bethune loved what she taught. In her teaching, writing, and talks, she demonstrated love for all, and thus, her aim was mainly to provide a quality, joyous, and full life to her students. The article demonstrates the impact made by vital figures in the field of education, specifically Mary McLeod Bethune. The authors present the principles that guided these people throughout their lives. They explore the importance of black women in society and how they influenced the lives of their children through education. Through education, black women influence their well-being, more so, economically (Reeves & Guyot, 2017). Muhammad et al. (2020) celebrates the lives of black women as well as their achievement in America.

Woodley, J. (2017). “Ma is in the park”: Memory, identity, and the Bethune memorial. Journal    of American Studies.


Bethune monument was the first to be celebrated concerning African American women. She was celebrated for her contribution to society as a civil rights leader, inspired by her Christian principles. Her roles were bound along ensuring that the agenda of black women was efficiently addressed and their advocate. Her commitment was to foster improving the political and economic clout of African American women in line with her female-centered activism. She was a pragmatist whose message could be assertive or conciliatory at other times. As a race leader, she reflected what she wanted African American women to look like. Consequently, Woodley (2017) describes her as a metaphor for black success. This article presents Bethune as an ideal description of an outstanding American achievement (Woodley, 2017). She stood tall with her principles of an expansive and expressive dynamic community, with her gesture being more inclusive. During Bethune’s memorial ceremony, she is mentioned as a collective identity. She assumed significant roles in representing black people, whereby she was recognized as a champion of racial and social justice in the 1960s (Woodley, 2017). Through her advocacy for equality reflected a universal unifying figure which appealed to politicians. She was not only a great black leader but also an amazing human being. This article demonstrates American people’s lives and how they were impacted by the leaders such as Bethune. It is significant for the reader to give insights into the kind of society great people fought for. The usage of personal quotes helps in understanding what the mentioned leaders viewed Bethune. Barret (2019) gives credit to Bethune’s contribution, which led to her presidential advisory role.

Wozolek, B. (2018). The mothership connection: Utopian funk from Bethune and beyond. The    Urban Review, 50(5), 836-856.


The history of black people provides narratives of African Americans’ contribution to education. Mary McLeod has contributed much to the educational progression in shaping the future of the American education system. This article broadly talks about race as a critical social and cultural element that greatly impacted education theory. The article also addresses some forms of systematic injustices that impacted the marginalized youths, especially the people of color. Subsequently, the perceived violence has had significant consequences on individuals both physically and emotionally. Scholars such as Bethune argued for black epistemologies that would secure places for marginalized people across society. Bethune’s work was centered around ensuring that the knowledge of people of color is not underestimated, and thus, its needs to be promoted. In regards, she argued that the aspect of mothership could be realized upon eliminating the existing forms of injustices and prejudices in the school environment. Bethune collaborated with other feminists such as Julia Cooper and Carter Woodson in expressing their views regarding how school environments turned to be for some people. It was due to the functionality of schools as a multi-sensual assemblage of violence that dehumanized people of color. In the article, the views of the black feminists regarding school injustices for people of color suggest the currency of this literature. It analyzes the lack of inclusivity of the black people specifically, which is comparable to other intellectuals. Consequently, Bowman, Comer, and Johns (2018) indicate diversity should be acknowledged in ensuring that black children’s lives are appreciated in the educational sector.

Synthesis of Articles on Mary Mcleod Bethune

Mary McLeod Bethune is an influential person concerning how we relate and treat others. She represents a symbol of success, especially to fellow people of color who view her as a role model. Through her advocacy and way of doing things, explicitly teaching, she promoted love, recognition, and equality for all. Indeed, she is an inspiring individual who never backed down until she attained success. It is motivating to have such leaders who are concerned with the needs of others regardless of their attributes. Muhammad et al. (2020) mainly focuses on the need for skills and knowledge that could help in undertaking available jobs for the minorities. In unison, the other two articles handle the contributions of Mary McLeod Bethune as a collective figure we should all embrace. Woodley (2017) acknowledges Bethune as a leader who understood the people’s needs during her memorial. Thus, from how she was descried by such leaders, it mentions her greatness and capacity to influence.

Preliminary Thesis Statement: Mary Mcleod Bethune

Mary’s philosophy of Christian education motivated her fight for inclusivity of people of color as an activist and their quest for social justice, especially in the education field.

Educational Progression from the Progressive Era to Postmodern Era in the United States

Annotated Journal Articles on Educational Progression

Maranto, R., & Wai, J. (2020). Why intelligence is missing from American education policy and practice, and what can be done about it. Journal of Intelligence, 8(1), 2.

Educational progressivism has been observed over the years, given the rise of modernization. However, there were different expectations from people hence the emerging views from psychologists and politicians. These views regard how progressive education has been implemented, mentioning some of the expectations that are yet to be achieved. Maranto and Wai (2020) suggest various ideas that they believe progressive education should consist of meeting its ideal expectations. Intelligence in education is among the leading concept that should be focused upon. Besides, the rise of progressive education was influenced by sporting activities, which would greatly benefit students’ lives. Consequently, much of academic work would end up not helping many. Instead, it was for the few interested during the progressive era that accrued the perceived advantages. Progressive education was also adjusted in terms of the taught subjects and doctrines to meet the job market requirements. Maranto and Wai (2020) indicate that this aspect of modernization ensured that students are at par with the modest skills of conducting existing jobs, hence meeting the right demand. This article precisely considers the expectations of progressive education as well as what has failed to be implemented yet. The article’s information mainly indicates that despite the lack of intelligence suggested by politicians and psychologists, progressive education brought about equipping individuals in education fields that fit their future roles. The authors present the importance of acquiring knowledge with advanced education. It is supported in The Bible, whereby it states that it is the lack of knowledge that destroys people (King James Bible, 2017, Hosea 4:6).

Gross, Z., & Rutland, S. D. (2017). Experiential learning in informal educational settings.

The world has experienced significant changes in countering rigid processes that existed in the past. In this case, the education sector has undergone modernist approaches by incorporating scientific and technological methods. This article analyzes the religious, ethnic, and multicultural diversity concerning globalized and post-modern practices in North America. Progressive education, in this case, was motivated by the need for equity and social justice. In regards, students deserve equal chances for acquiring relevant knowledge and skills. Besides, Gross and Rutland (2017) indicate that educational reforms were due to the needed creativity in various subsequent experiences. These authors also suggest that educators recognized that there was a demand for growth. Experimental learning is necessary for assisting learners to gain equity and social justice needs. Thus, it was a significant development during the American society’s educational reforms during the 20th century. It led to a healthy learning identity, which was required in the fast-changing globalized world. This study suggests how the reforms were of an advantage to minorities who have fewer chances for learning. Gross and Rutland (2017) also mention that applying these techniques created an enjoyable learning environment for students. The authors utilize both formal and informal settings to give a precise application of academic knowledge and skills. Their information reflects Boston University (n.d.), which states that experimental learning supports applying the taught skills to earn a living. From the article, the reader finds the benefits that were related to this development. Besides, other used articles for review provide the need for enhancing educational reforms, hence the credibility.

Johnson, L. D., & Pak, Y. K. (2019). Teaching for diversity: Intercultural and intergroup education in the public schools, 1920s to 1970s. Review of Research in Education, 43(1),    1-31.

During the progressive period, some reforms took place in the American education system. Some view focused on some policies based on nationality, race, and religion.  In particular, equality included the enhancement of justice and democracy among the country’s civilians. The intergroup and intercultural educational developments encouraged students and fellows to enhance democratic cultural pluralism to improve human relations. People were taught American history, culture, and music in seeking to strengthen democratic citizenship. Some changes in the taught subjects reflected the recognition of American immigrants such as Japanese and Chinese. However, some set of rules dictated the eligibility of American citizenship. The development of new reforms during the 1940s addressed the concept of discrimination, which aimed at clarifying the school’s intentions for improved intergroup relations (Johnson & Pak, 2019). Another change was based on the hiring and compensation strategies. In regards, people were to be hired based on competence and ability across all races, rather than upon aspects of race, color, religion, during the progressive era. This historical work of American progressivism addressed the needs of society, including minorities. Minorities included people of color and other races such as African Americans and Hispanics. These changes were applicable in schools after realizing the needed improvement on the way of doing things. The authors utilize examples of how these reforms were motivated and implemented. In Johnson & Pak (2019) views, they demonstrate how various policies were changed and the effects. Diversity was massively needed to supply policies that promoted inter-group relations (Calderon, Fouka, & Tabellini, 2020).

Synthesis of Articles on Educational Progression

The three articles utilize their information from the progressive era of education, which was necessitated various changes. Among the policies, I have realized from the different progressive periods are equality, educational growth, racial bias, and justice. The reader of this information may understand the various phases of racial prejudice and how solutions were implemented to enhance human relations. The aspect of social justice is still discussed in Johnson & Pak (2019), whereby it was needed to respond to reported incidents of injustices. Talking about diversity brings the understanding of how various activists fought for their treatment and employment opportunities. Other reforms included the type of knowledge and skills students were supplied (Maranto and Wai, 2020). People felt that applicable skills were necessary, which are still vital today in the field of work. The work of these individuals should be acknowledged as powerful tools for equality and justice in societal settings.

Preliminary Thesis Statement: Educational Progression

Education develops an efficient way of living and productive civic skills that are valuable to individuals in improving their lives and maintaining success in the changing diverse world. 


Barret, W. (2019). Mary McLeod Bethune: Educator and activist. Retrieved from

Boston University. (n.d.). Experimental learning. Retrieved from


Bowman, B.T., Comer, J.P., & Johns, D.J. (2018). Addressing the African American         achievement gap: Three leading educators issue a call to action. Retrieved from

Calderon, A., Fouka, V., & Tabellini, M. (2020). Racial diversity, electoral preferences, and the supply of policy: The Great Migration and civil rights. Retrieved from

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. Retrieved from  

Reeves, R.V., & Guyot, K. (2017). Black women are earning more college degrees, but that        alone won’t close race gaps. Retrieved from


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