Disinformation’ Is the Word of the Year — and A Sign of What’s To Come by GEOFF NUNBERG

Disinformation is a term that has been used for many years especially during the Cold War era. The primary purpose of disinformation is to give false information that is aimed at harming other parties. Those people who use disinformation are always marred with ill motives as they want to take advantage over innocent parties.

What is the primary motive behind the use of disinformation? What are the negative effects of using disinformation?   

Article 2

Almost everything you know about e-waste is wrong

Waste from different sources has devastating effects on the environment. The best way to minimize e-wastes is by repairing and upgrading the devices that we already have. There is also the need to use innovative ways that will facilitate reuse and repairs. It is also advisable for manufacturers to reduce CO2 emissions from their devices.

What measures can electronics manufacturers put in place to minimize e-waste?

Article 3

Information and Misinformation; to appear in The Princeton Companion to the History of Information by Geoffrey Nunberg

Information seems to be closely associated with the press and other printed documents. The manner in which the information is shaped will determine the way it will be perceived by the recipients. If the information is from a credible source there are high changes that it will easily achieve its purpose.

What is the origin of fake news and how does it affect dissemination of information?

Article 4

Clicking Clean: Who is winning the race to build a green Internet?

With the increase use of the internet there is an increased desire to ensure that the environment is well conserved. The internet is the primary concern in this case since it is the largest single thing that human beings has ever created. There is need to emphasize renewable energy advocacy to conserve the environment.

What is the critical importance of corporate advocacy for climate and renewable energy policies?

Article 5

Global ethics: capabilities approach

Global ethics is a vital element since it affects the economic, political and cultural life of people. There is need for people to reason morally across borders. Therefore, global ethics can only work if every individual member in this society takes the initiative of developing a moral reasoning. Any capability approach used should always be geared towards ensuring that ethics are well used when making global interactions.

What is the relevance of the capability approach in global ethics?

Article 6

We need a “moral operating system” TED Talk by Damon Horowitz

 There is need to develop a moral operating system when handling different kinds of data. This is vital since there are people who develop technology and use it to harm others. Therefore, there is need to develop a moral operating system that ensure that technology used to do right things. 

What are some of the ethical considerations that should be taken into consideration when collecting and using other people’s data?

Article 7

Making Kin with Machines

Epistemology plays a significant role in the manner human beings relate with each other. The authors seems to note that everything in this life is interconnected.  But the key take away is that it is not right to treat human beings as tools. Instead of using human beings as machines design guidelines should be developed to guide the development of artificial intelligence to replace human beings.

What are some of the reasons behind the increased use of artificial intelligence?

Article 8

Lexicon of Lies: Terms for problematic information by Caroline Jack

Information always becomes problematic when the news being spread are fake. The best way to avoid misinformation is by ensuring that the original message is retained when transferring information from one source to another. Journalists should therefore be careful when interpreting messages for transmission purposes. They should take time to independently verify the source’s claims.

What are the primary causes of misinformation among journalists?

Article 9

Digital media ethics

Digital media ethics are typically based on the dimensions of the information and communication technologies. It is vital to relay information in such a manner that it does not affect other partiers. Some people have the tendency of using digital technologies to spread false information about others. Therefore, digital media users must be ready to follow different values and principles that guides dissemination of information.

What are the basic ethical frameworks used in digital media?

Article 10

Paramedic ethics for computer professionals by W. Robert Collins and Keith W. Miller

Ethical issues normally arises everywhere even among computer professionals. Therefore, there is need to develop a platform in every organization where members should be well equipped with ethical skills. These skills are vital since they ensure that professionals behaves morally upright when undertaking their duties.

What causes the movement of computer professionals from one organization to another?

Article 11

Report on the investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 presidential elections by Special counsel Robert S. Muller.

 Social media seems to have played a major role in the GRU hacking operations. The primary investigations were focused on establishing whether the activities caused any election interference. Some of the investigations were geared towards finding whether the conduct amounted to violation of the criminal law. FBI did a commendable job in carrying out these investigations.

To what extent did the Russian interference affect the outcome of America’s elections? 

Article 12

The limits of intellectual property

Intellectual property continues to gain momentum in the contemporary society. This is because people have started discovering the relevance of protecting their work from being compromised by other parts. But, despite its increased dominance, it has its own limits in terms of its power and scope. Intellectual property is well applied when people know how it functions.

What are the benefits associated with intellectual property?

Article 13

Ghosts in the machine

Machines seems to have totally changed the manner in which organizations operate. With the introduction of artificial intelligence it is now easier for machines to perform duties previously performed by machines.  Many companies are hopeful that when they adopt the robotics technology work will flow more efficiently.

What are the benefits of using robots instead of human beings in an organizations?

 Article 14

The paradox if automation’s last mile

The increased adoption of internet and information technology has helped to improve production in many companies. Moreover, it seems that technology has even changed the manner in which work is allocated among workers. The two broad categories that determines the allocation of duties are micro and macro ghost work. A good strategy is therefore vital in allocating duties among workers for improved productivity. 

What are the benefits of using ghost work approach in an organization?

Article 15

Retooling solidarity, reimaging justice

Mass incarceration and political momentum of social justice organization are two important aspects that should be considered when retooling solidarity and reimaging justice. The two are vital since they directly affect the targeted individuals. In some instances, I consider the use of digital tools as one of the primary interventions that can be used to help those who cannot afford bail to get out of the cages.

Article 16

Closed source culture

Technology seems to have chased many challenges to consumers when they want to exercise fair use of products. But, technology tends to favor them since it allows consumers to exercise free speech and product user rights. Besides, there seems to be major challenges arising from copyrights. These challenges typically relates to the use of digital information where some parties might claim rights to the same file.

What causes copy fights in the business environment?

Article 17

Environmental history of computing

After reading this article it is quite evident that material constraints and considerations continues to gain momentum in the digital era. It is quite surprising that people are slowly abandoning their traditional ways of communicating are now moving towards the digital era. Computer technology has therefore been applied widely and has really helped in solving many organizational and societal problems.

What is the relevance of adopting computer technology in the modern era?

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