Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Create a study guide for your assigned disorder. Your study guide should be in the form of an outline with references, and you should incorporate visual elements such as concept maps, charts, diagrams, images, color coding, mnemonics, and/or flashcards. Be creative! It should not be in the format of an APA paper. Your guide should be informed by the DSM-5 but also supported by at least three other scholarly resources.

Areas of importance you should address, but are not limited to, are:

  • Signs and symptoms according to the DSM-5
  • Differential diagnoses
  • Incidence
  • Development and course
  • Prognosis
  • Considerations related to culture, gender, age
  • Pharmacological treatments, including any side effects
  • Nonpharmacological treatments
  • Diagnostics and labs
  • Comorbidities
  • Legal and ethical considerations
  • Pertinent patient education considerations


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSASD symptoms include abnormal or delay in functioning beginning at 3 years of age portraying one of the following essential features which includes imaginative or symbolic play, social interaction, and the way words are used in social communication (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).Although ASD requires the prior symptoms according to American Psychiatric Association (2013), for an individual to be diagnosed with ASD, the individual has to fulfill six behavioral diagnostic criteria from the following three domains: at least one symptom of impairment in social communication, two symptoms of impairment of social interaction, and at least one symptom of repetitive and limited patterns of behavior.ASPERGER SYNDROMEAsperger syndrome (AS) is another form of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) which outlines the leading problems in nonverbal and social communication, with repetitive and limited patterns of behavior and interests (Faridi & Khosrowabadi, 2017). The cognitive and semantic development in AS is maintained to create various forms of ASD. Nevertheless, AS has a notable effect on the brain and cognitive abilities which requires to be examined. Recent studies have dwelt on brain imagining techniques to scrutinize AS since a pathology for Asperger has not been determined (Faridi & Khosrowabadi, 2017).asperger syndromeNames
WHAT CAUSES ASPERGER’S SYNDROME?The exact cause is unknown. Although the cause is not fully understood, there has been strong evidence of relation to genetic and environmental factors.•Studies suggest autism spectrum disorder runs in families• Higher than expected incidence of prenatal and perinatal complications have been linked to causes of autism spectrum disorderBiomarkers, neurological conditions, and the effects of maternal antibodies are all possible contributing factors to the development (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014. IS ASPERGER’S SYNDROME DIAGNOSED?Asperger’s syndrome was once used as a diagnosis for those who had impairments with social interaction and communication. It was noted that these children did not present with significant language and cognitive deficits. However as redefined, children with significant language, developmental, social, and communication deficits fall under Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is diagnosed on levels of severity by persistent deficits in communication and social interaction (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Those who would be diagnosed with Asperger’s Syndrome typically fall on the lower end of the spectrum. Clinicians rely heavily on an integrated comprehensive assessment and what other observe in the home, school, and community including parents and teachers for diagnosis. In addition:• Diagnoses is usually made in early childhood although symptoms and presentation in clinical care can occur in any stage of development (Volkmar, Siegel, Woodbury-Smith, King, McCracken, & State. (2014)• Diagnosis is not based on any specific genetic or laboratory tests• Assessment tools also used to help solidify diagnosis.AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER TREATMENTSEarly diagnosis and treatment are important because early treatment can help a child with autism make significant gains in language and social skills. The sooner ASD is identified, the sooner personalized interventions can begin. No child with ASD has the same exact needs and research has shown that early interventions can improve outcomes (Dawson et al., 2012).There is no current cure for ASD. Improving cognitive function and, daily living skills as well as improving functioning in the community are the focus of treatment.TYPES OF TREATMENTSThere are many types of treatments available. These include applied behavior analysis, social skills training, occupational therapy, physical therapy, sensory integration therapy, and the use of assistive technology. 
BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION APPROACHESThe American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Research Council have indicated that behavior communication approaches can provide structure, direction and organization for ASD.Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): used in schools and treatment clinics, this encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors. There are 3 types of ABA, Discrete Trial Training which teaches each step of a desired behavior or response by breaking them down into their most simple parts and using positive reinforcement to reward correct behaviors (CDC, 2019).Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI): used for those younger than five years old, EIBI is a structured approach to teaching positive behaviors such as social communication and reduce aggression and self-injury. It is a one on one interaction between an adult and child that occurs with a trained professional (CDC, 2019).BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION APPROACHES (continued)Early Start Denver Model (ESDM): This is used with very young children from 1 year old to 4 years old and uses play and other activities to help children improve social, language and cognitive functioning (Vivanti, Dissanayake & Victorian, 2016).Pivotal Response Training (PRT): is used to improve a child’s motivation to learn and monitor their own behavior (CDC, 2019).Verbal Behavior Intervention (VBI): focuses on teaching verbal skills (CDC, 2019).Assistive Technology uses communication boards and tablets to help those with ASD communicate and interact with other people. This may use pictures or symbols to represent specific things and allow the child to communicate their needs more effectively (CDC, 2019).Floortime is an intervention that focuses on emotional and relational development, including how the child with ASD reacts to and copes with signs, sounds and smell. (CDC, 2019)BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION APPROACHES (continued)Floortime is an intervention that focuses on emotional and relational development, including how the child with ASD reacts to and copes with signs, sounds and smell (CDC, 2019).Occupational Therapy: can teach skills to help those with ASD live more independently, such as dressing, eating, and bathing (CDC, 2019).Social Skills Training: is used to teach those with ASD the skills needed to interact with others with conversation and problem-solving skills (CDC, 2019).Speech Therapy: uses gestures, picture boards and verbal skills to improve communication (CDC, 2019).Dietary Approaches: While some vitamins may show efficacy for those with ASD, there is little evidence to support the use of dietary restrictions in ASD (Sathe et al., 2017). If you are thinking about changing your child’s diet, please speak with a physician prior to doing so.
BEHAVIOR AND COMMUNICATION APPROACHES (continued)Medication: There are some medications that can be used to improve functioning with ASD children. Medications that help manage focus, concentration, anxiety, depression, reactivity, irritability, and self-injury may be available. Speak with a physician about options in medication management. Children with ASD must be monitored closely when on most medications.Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments: while not recommended by most pediatricians, special diets, treatment to remove heavy metal from the body, and biologicals and mind-body medicine are sometimes used. While some treatments are believed to be safe, many treatments have not been studied effectively and some studies have found evidence that certain CAM treatments are harmful. (Whitehouse, 2013). Prior to starting any alternative therapies, please speak with a physician. The FDA website may be able to give you more information about potentially harmful treatments.REFERENCESAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Autism Society. (2020). Asperger’s Syndrome. Retrieved from www.autism-society.orgCDC. (2019). Treatment | Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) | NCBDDD | CDC. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:, G., Jones, E. J. H., Merkle, K., Venema, K., Lowy, R., Faja, S., Kamara, D., Murias, M., Greenson, J., Winter, J., Smith, M., Rogers, S. J., & Webb, S. J. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150-1159. Retrieved from, F., & Khosrowabadi, R. (2017). Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Markers of Asperger Syndrome. Basic and clinical neuroscience, 8(5), 349-359. Retrieved from, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.Sathe, N., Andrews, A.C., McPheeters, M.L., & Warren, Z.E. (2017). Nutritional and Dietary Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics, 139(6), e20170346.Vivanti, G., Dissanayake, C. (2016). Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model Before and After 48 Months. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2441-2449. Retrieved from, F., Siegel, M., Woodbury-Smith, M., King, B., McCracken, J., & State, M. (2014). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Childe & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(2), 237-257. Retrieved from, A. J. (2013). Complementary and alternative medicine for autism spectrum disorders: Rationale, safety and efficacy. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(9), E438-E442. Retrieved from

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