Effects Of The Use Of Epidural Anesthesia During Pre-Labor

Write a research methods, a results section (one paragraph), a discussions section (the longest section), a limitations and implications section (one paragraph), a conclusions section (one paragraph), and an abstract to the paper attached. 

The introduction and literature review are already done, please continue from there. 

The topic is Effects of the use of Epidural anesthesia during pre-labor.

The instructions for each section are attached, as well as the paper. 

The total should be 8 pages besides what it already done. 

Please include in text citations. 



The pain experiences during childbirth is arguably among the severe pain that pregnant women have to endure in their lifetime experience. Labor period is not a walk in the park it takes courage or perhaps use of epidural analgesia to help labor women feel the comfort and relax during childbirth exercise (Phillips, 2018).

Background information.

Chloroform was the oldest anesthesia used to block pain among patients who had to undergo good surgery long before the discovery and introduction of epidural anesthesia. Later in 1921 the first-single shot of epidural anesthesia technique was put in use by a Spanish military surgeon by the name Fidel Pages as a way of treating wounded soldiers in severe pain. Epidural anesthesia as a type of anesthesia medicine whose primary purpose is to block pain and relieve the patient off the discomfort caused by the said pain and it is usually injected into the spinal cord as well as nerve roots so that it can block pain sensations from the entire parts of the body, particularly the hips, belly, pelvis, or legs (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2019).

Problem statement.

It should be understood that Epidural and spinal anesthesia are primarily used for surgery of the legs and lower belly, but besides that, Epidural anesthesia is used in childbirth. Additionally, the said anesthesia may be used to help reduce and control pain after major surgery is done on the belly or chest of the patient (Phillips, 2018).

Research questions.

What is epidural anesthesia?

What is the use of epidural anesthesia?

How is epidural injection performed?

What are positive and negative effects of using epidural during pre-labor moments?


Epidural anesthesia reduces pain during labor moments and improves the experience of childbirth process as opposed to other mechanism put forth for labor cope up among pregnant women (Phillips, 2018). It is the best solutions when all other methods fail to assist

Thesis statement.

This research paper will focus on describing the use of epidural anesthesia in labor women, both positive adverse effects, possible complications of using epidural anesthesia during pre-labor.

Literature Review

Epidural anesthesia encompasses the insertion of a hollow needle as well as a small flexible catheter into the space existing between the epidural space and the spinal column at the middle or lower back of the human body. It should be understood that during the process, the area in which the needle will have to be inserted will be numbed first using local anesthesia, after which the needle is successfully inserted and later removed after the catheter has passed through it (Healthwise Staff, 2020). Upon the removal of the needle, the catheter is left inside within the space, and in this case, the anesthetic medicine is injected and directed to the catheter to numb the body below and above the point of injections as may be needed.  Note that the catheter is often secured at the back so as to facilitate more injection of medicine as may be required. in pre-labor women, normally, the intravenous (Iv) fluid need to be started before the commencement of active labor and before the procedure of placing the epidural

As mentioned early an epidural anesthesia play a vital role during the last days of the human female gestation period. Essential Epidural provides anesthesia that helps create a band of numbness from the bellybutton to the upper part of their legs. This is imperatively good for the patient’s well-being experiences labor moments as it makes them awake and active throughout the labor session. Additionally, the use of epidural in pre-labor women makes them feel pressure, and the ability to feel the second phase enables patients in labor moments to be able to push the baby when the time for giving birth arrives (Healthwise Staff, 2020).

Besides that, epidural anesthesia allows nearly giving birth mothers to have a good rest while awaiting their delivery time, especially when their labor and delivery period is prolonged than expected (Healthwise Staff, 2020). Perhaps the use of epidural anesthesia helps women on experiencing labor moments to be relieved off their pain and discomforts accompanied with childbirth leading to improved and development of positive birth experience. In addition to that, during delivery, many women may experience a lot of challenges, and in some cases, many other types of coping mechanisms may fail to work nor help the expectant patient deliver safely and comfortably. In such scenarios use of epidural anesthesia becomes necessary so as to enable the pregnant patient to deal with exhaustion, fatigue, and irritability effectively.  Anesthesia helps the pre-labor patients relax, rest, maintained active focus during delivery, and strengthen them to participate in the childbirth experience actively.

Even if the use of epidural anesthesia proves too effective at some extent, it may be deduced that at many times the anesthesia has been found to pose several health risks sudden drop of blood pressure, which may reduce blood flow to the baby. Also, leakage of the spinal fluid may lead to severe headaches. Also, some women may experience nausea, difficulty in urinating, backache, shivering, and soreness where the needle is inserted. Often a few hours after delivery, many patients usually complain of lower body numbness (Healthwise Staff, 2020). Also, the anesthesia may make pushing more difficult, which may necessitate further interventions. It may lead to an increased risk of a perineal tear, temporal nerve damages, inadequate pain relief, feeling sick, loss of bladder control, and itching skin.

Common complication of epidural includes maternal hypotension which translates to reduce blood pressure and decreased uteroplacental perfusion. Secondly, the anesthesia is believed to cause post-dural puncture headache, which can be described as lumbar puncture complications resulting from the leakage of the epidural anesthesia (Phillips, 2018).


Healthwise Staff. (2020, July 27). Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia | Michigan Medicine. https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/rt1583

Kanawati, S., & Nassour, A. (2018). Inadvertent epidural injection of labetalol during labor. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 48, 39-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2018.04.022

Phillips, S. (2018, May 10). 8 Facts About Epidural Side Effects | Parents. https://www.parents.com/pregnancy/giving-birth/epidural/epidural-side-effects/

Waurick, K., & Waurick, R. (2015). [History and Technique of Epidural Anaesthesia] – PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26230893

Zaphiratos, V., George, R. B., Macaulay, B., Bolleddula, P., & McKeen, D. M. (2016). Epidural Volume Extension During Combined Spinal-Epidural Labor Analgesia Does Not Increase Sensory Block. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 123(3), 684-689. https://doi.org/10.1213/ane.0000000000001281


Research Methods

The Method(s) section of the research paper is the stage where the researcher shows how s/he had done the research/study. The rest of the paper depends on this section; therefore, it must provide detailed information on the type of method applied, the process that was followed, the tools used during the process, and the way those tools were handled. 

1. Formulate the  Research Method  of your selected topic. Please ensure that you incorporate all appropriate elements:

* the type of research used (remember that all students must carry a meta-analysis)

* the step-by-step process of the research

* the tools used during the research

* how were these tools handled. 

Provide the complete References list of the sources used in writing the Method. Use APA style (7th Ed.) to enter the references.

Note: Remember that you should use the past tense, 3rd person, active or passive voice. 


1. Based on the information collected in the Research Method, formulate the  Results  section of your selected topic. Do not forget that your Results section needs to provide:

a. the narrative paragraph that presents objectively the findings resulted from the Method and that helps your reader understand the information presented in the visual

b. the visual (table, figure, graph) of findings.

Please  do not interpret  the results as this will be done in the following section!

Provide the complete References list of the sources used in writing the Results. Use APA style (7th Ed.) to enter the references.


The purpose of the Discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your results/findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or fresh insights about the problem after you have taken the findings into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the research Question(s) or Hypothesis you posed and the Literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction; the Discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader’s understanding of the Research Problem forward from where you left them at the end of the Introduction.

1. Based on the information collected in this study, formulate the Discussion section of your selected topic. Do not forget that your Discussion section should:

a. Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings

Briefly reiterate for your readers the Research Problem or problems you are investigating and the Methods you used to investigate them, then move quickly to describe the major Results of the study. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results.

b. Explain the Meaning of the Results and Why They are Important

No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. Systematically, explain the meaning of the Results and why you believe they are important. After reading the Discussion section, you want the reader to think about the Results [“why hadn’t I thought of that?”]. You do not want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important finding first.

c. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies

No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research. The Discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies.

d. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings

It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the Discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study Results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases.

Provide the complete References list of the sources used in writing the Discussion. Use APA style (7th Ed.) to enter the references.

Limitations and Implications

The Limitations and Implications of the study are those characteristics of design or methodology that impacted or influenced the application or interpretation of the results of your study. They are the constraints on generalizability and utility of findings that are the result of the ways in which you chose to design the study and/or the method used to establish internal and external validity. After finishing the Discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. Comment on their relative importance in relation to your overall interpretation of the results and, note how they may affect the validity of the findings. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical.

1. Formulate the Limitations & Implications sectionof your selected topic. Explain the limitations the researcher encountered during the study and how those limitations impacted the study. 


1. Formulate the Conclusion sectionof your selected topic.  

This section should contain conclusive statements and recommendations for future research.


1. Formulate the Abstract sectionof your selected topic.  

Make sure that your Abstract follows the structure provided in the student samples and contains the following sub-sections:

* Background Information on the Problem

* The Objective of the Study

* Method Used

* Interpretation of the Results

* Conclusion 

* Recommendations for Future Research

* Five (5) Keywords

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