EVIDENCE-BASED PAPER: HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE (HYPERTENSION)

High blood pressure results to too many deaths across the world. The condition increases the risks chances of other health related problems such as stroke, heart attack and other heart diseases that can cause death within a short period of time.  The biggest challenge to all parts of the world is the growing worldwide burden of morbidity and frequent premature deaths caused by the extreme rise of the blood pressure. The condition remains a challenge to the whole world because of the poor management among the patients.

However, putting in place effective measures across the world to control the condition could probably help in reducing the mortality rate. For instance, identifying and managing the lifestyle risk factors associated with hypertension can help in lowering the blood pressure and therefore it will be easy to control and manage the hypertension condition (Carey & Whelton, 2018).  If the patients adhere to the treatment prescribed by the doctors and attend clinics on regular basis he or she can maintain a normal blood pressure. for instance, it is possible to control or completely prevent hypertension effectively through lifestyle changes such as engagement in exercises regularly and taking proper diets.

Research PICO question

Patient/Problem: hypertension,                       Intervention: Regular exercising and eating balanced diets,     Comparison:  compared to those who don’t exercise,        Outcome:   Developing hear diseases

For both female and males between the age of 35 to 70 with high blood pressure, and several symptomatology will regular engagement in exercises such as running and uptake of healthier and balanced diet compared to the victims who rely on medication only to manage or treat their high blood pressure help to manage their hypertension and reduce the risks of getting infected with cardiovascular diseases?

Literature search

  1. Abstract

Hypertension is major risk for chronic heart diseases widely recognized by the World health organization (WHO) as ‘number one killer.’ The study focused on the ideal measures that can help the hypertension patients control and manage their conditions. Moreover, during the study period high blood pressure was defined as any systolic pressure equal or more than 140mmHg or any diastolic pressure which was equal or above 90mmHg (Paulose-Ram & Kit, 2017). Basically, the information about the occurring events of hypertension cases as well as the incidence should be considered to prevent and control the heart diseases.

Background of the study

Regular blood pressure checkup for patients by the clinical nurses is significant in evaluating the health status of the human beings.  Hypertension is common and hence a major threatening issue to the lives of the people although proper treatment can lower the risks of getting the heart diseases associated with the condition (Del pinto, et al. 2021). However, there are challenges associated with the control of high blood pressure which include the compliance of the patients to the treatment.  Lack of close monitoring of the patients by medical practitioners contributes to improper maintenance of the blood pressure and hence hypertension raises the mortality rate of the patients across the world.

For instance, to ensure the cases are reduced, the physician s and practitioners need to create awareness to the public that the high blood pressure indicate possible failures of many other body parts and therefore they should consider adopting health lifestyles with or without hypertension to avoid other hypertension related diseases.

Objective/aim of the study

The aim to investigate whether healthy lifestyles such as regular exercising and eating balanced meals can help in controlling the hypertensions conditions among the adult patients as well as helping them reduce the risks of being attacked by cardiovascular diseases

Study design/ methodology

A cross-sectional survey was conducted and the population to be studied was of the adults both males and females between the age of 35 tom 70 years in mexico.  The data was collected through one on one interview and pretested structured questionnaires and the blood pressure of the participants recorded.   During the study period the blood pressure of the patients was measured using improvised instruments whereby high blood pressure was defined as any systolic pressure equal or more than 140mmHg or any diastolic pressure which was equal or above 90mmHg.

Results

The systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the male patients was higher as compared to that of female patients.  It was also found that the patients who ate balanced diet, and exercised regularly had fewer complications and had not developed cardiovascular diseases. Their body mass index (BMI) was low and they had less fat percentage in their body.

Conclusion

Individuals who had high Body Mass Index more likely to be diagnosed with high blood compared to the ones who had a normal Body Mass Index. The prevalence of the high blood pressure at early stages can be reduced by the modification of the lifestyles such as engaging in exercises that will lead to a weight loss as well taking balanced diets. Additionally, the finding calls for a regular checkup of the patients by the medical practitioners to ensure that their blood pressure trend is mastered after a specific interval of time.  

  • Abstract

High blood pressure has been one of the lead factors that increases the daily mortality rate of people across the world. However, if proper management practices of the condition such as regular monitoring and adherence of the patients to treatment are considered and put in place the death case can reduce (Flynn, et al. 2017).This interactive study examined the attitudes, knowledge and behavior of the patients towards the diagnosis, treatment and control.

Study design

Interview was conducted whereby 40 participants took part and the interviewees’ responses were noted.

Results

It was found that only 5 participants were aware of the measures that should undertake to prevent control the high blood pressure. most of them appeared to have been taking medication  although it was evident that they had little knowledge about their condition. It showed that the patients relationship with the doctors and nurses as well as close monitoring through medical checkups promoted a strict adherence to medication.    

Conclusion

According to the finding of the research study, the individuals who had little knowledge on the control and management of hypertension were more likely to develop heart diseases. However, the condition can be a life threatening  issue when the patients has poor access to the treatment  because of the co-payments for medications, the lack of drugs or the transport cost to the hospitals. There is need for the governments to always subsidize all healthcare services to ensure that the hypertension patients get proper medication when a condition strikes them within the shortest time possible. Proper awareness to the patients can also help them acquire enough knowledge on how to manage the high blood pressure condition. To reduce the chances of being attacked by the cardiovascular disorders.

  • Abstract

The high blood pressure is the main factor that leads to heart related diseases.  Today a good number of individuals have been diagnosed with high blood pressure but most of them are not taking the antihypertensive medications (Martínez-Rueda,et al. 2019). According to World Health Organization, hypertension causes more than nine million deaths globally in every single year.  The study explored the experiences of the patients with the high blood pressure and the reason why they didn’t take the antihypertensive medication, engage themselves in physical exercises such as running and the uptake of balanced diet as recommended.

Research method

A quality methodology was used where the data was collected by interviewing 65 patients who usually attended checkup clinics in public hospitals across the state. The data was then analyzed using thematic analysis. 

Results

The results were an evidence of lack poor patient self- empowerment. Most patients did not put in place the recommendation they were given after diagnosis. They neither took the antihypertensive medication nor engage in exercises or even changing their diets. Further follow up by the doctors was minimal and this contributed to the patients reluctance of taking the precautions serious. Some patients claimed that the side effects of the medications are the one that made them not to take them. Personal attitude was also a key factor.

Conclusion

Self-management approach is a good measure that every patient can try to manage his or her blood pressure at the normal range. Since hypertension is a great threat to life, the patients should always be equipped with more information about it and the doctors should make sure they are in conduct with the patients supporting the adherence of the hypertensive management approaches. the monitoring and awareness ensures that the risks related to hypertension are minimized hence reducing the chance of getting cardiovascular diseases.

References

Carey, R. M., & Whelton, P. K. (2018). Prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: synopsis of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guideline. Annals of internal medicine168(5), 351-358.

Del Pinto, R., Grassi, G., Ferri, C., Pengo, M. F., Lombardi, C., Pucci, G., … & Parati, G. (2021). Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Sleep Disorders, High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Consensus Document by the Italian Society of Hypertension (SIIA). High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention, 1-18.

Flynn, J. T., Kaelber, D. C., Baker-Smith, C. M., Blowey, D., Carroll, A. E., Daniels, S. R., … & Urbina, E. M. (2017). Clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics140(3).

Martínez-Rueda, A. J., Olivas-Martínez, A., Vega-Vega, O., Fonseca-Correa, J. I., & Correa-Rotter, R. (2019). New 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association High Blood Pressure Guideline: Healthcare Impact in Mexico and Other Developing Countries. Hypertension73(1), 142-147.

Paulose-Ram, R., Gu, Q., & Kit, B. (2017). Characteristics of US Adults With Hypertension Who Are Unaware of Their Hypertension, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief, (278), 1-8.\

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