The tension between the Hutu and Tutsi flared when the Habyarimana and the Burundi president were killed as they flew back home from Tanzania. The person under the assassination was not identified; however, Hutus were blamed for being responsible for the death of Habyarimana and the president of Burundi (Dindar, 5). This led to the evacuation of the Hutus from Rwanda by the Mayor’s, militias, and the death squads started killing the Tutsis. Besides, the tension worsened due to the Belgians, who favored the minority Tutsi over the Hutus. Belgium’s also aggravated the tendency of the few to oppress the many. This led to the rise of tension in the country even before Rwanda gained its independence (Dindar 5). Many Tutsis fled the country; as a result, making them an even smaller minority.
A movement made up mostly of the Tutsi refugees, referred to as the Rwandese Patriotic Front, attacked Rwanda from Uganda, which led to tension in the country. Habyarimana, who was then the president, blamed the Tutsi who were still in the country, and he arrested many of them, accusing them of being the informers of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (Dindar 6). Besides, the Tutsi were massacred, killing many of them. To end the hostility, RPF and the government had to negotiate and come into a standard agreement.
Due to the conflicts, many Rwandese residents migrated into other countries such as Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo as refugees. This led to overpopulation in the neighboring countries. It also led to the signing of an agreement between Rwanda and Tanzania, which led to the formation of a conversion government that included the Rwandese patriotic Front (Dindar 7). This power-sharing arrangement enraged Hutu radicals, who retaliated with swift and heinous violence. Also, In late June, French armies invaded Rwanda from Zaire in a separate UN-approved French invasion. Faced with the RPF’s rapid improvement, they restricted their involvement to a “humanitarian zone” formed in southwestern Rwanda, saving tens of thousands of Tutsi subsists while also assisting the genocide’s perpetrators’ partners, the French, in the Habyarimana supervision to flee. In addition, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which was situated in Tanzania, was formed. This was a part of the International Criminal Tribunal for Previous Yugoslavia in The Hague, the initial global tribunal ever since the Nuremberg Tribunals of 1945–46, and the first to try genocide.
Injustice anywhere is an injustice everywhere, and yes, in my opinion, other countries should be obligated to help Rwanda pursue the genocide (Dindar 4). It is one thing to have to live with the haunting images of witnessing the people you knew get massacred and maimed. Still, no one should undergo the fear or the haunting photos of the perpetrators of the killings alive and walk freely, either being harbored by authorities in other countries. Genocide is a crime against humanity and should be fought with a global approach by offering the necessary assistance in punishing and finding those involved in the mass killings (Dindar 3). Such elements should never be allowed to walk freely as it is a mockery to Rwanda’s justice system and mockery also to any state that believes in the rule of law.
The perpetrators took advantage of the international law on the legal basis for extraditions and chose to hide in countries without bi- or multi-lateral treaties with Rwanda. The international community should create lenient laws that can enable the extraditions of benefactors and perpetrators of crimes against humanity. By doing this, the international community should be at the forefront of making sure that such individuals face the law’s equal wrath to serve justice to the victims of the genocide (Dindar 7). No country should take pleasure in harboring individuals with criminal records of such high stakes as involvement in mass killings, no matter the rewards the perpetrators are willing to pay in exchange for protection.
|Classification||Both groups were members of the same army and shared the same faith, language, and political culture (Dindar 7). It was these classifications that the two groups would later use to identify between a Hutu and a Tutsi|
|Symbolization||Tutsi supremacy was strengthened by the Germans, who promoted Tutsis to leadership roles and better employment, escalating ethnic tensions (Dindar 8). Belgium’s also perpetuated the “us versus them” mentality by putting Tutsis in power and issuing ethnic identity cards, which primarily instituted the classification step of the genocide|
|Discrimination||Major General Juvénal Habyarimana(1937–1994), a Hutu, deposed Rwanda’s president in1973, ushering in a two-decade dictatorship. Tutsis were expelled from politics, government, industry, and schools under Habyarimana’s strict ethnic quotas. The discriminations based on ethnicity rampant all the institutions being run by Hutus, which would later lead to Tutsis retaliation.|
|Dehumanization||After the assassination of the Hutu president Habyarimana, Rwanda’s extremist Hutus retaliated their retribution by ordering the Tutsis’ assassination by sending an order to every Hutu affiliate militia, mayors, as well as death squads to begin killing the Tutsis. Tutsis who attempted to flee were shot, while those who survived were brutally murdered.|
|Organization||The genocide started with opposition leaders’ assassination, both Hutus and Tutsis. A clandestine militia of about 30,000 fighters was created. Radios broadcast the order for all Hutus to join the Tutsi-killing movement.|
|Polarization||The two communities mainly participated in polarizing the country by overthrowing every community’s biased governments. In 1959 the Hutus rose to power by claiming to cleanse the government from the inequalities perpetuated by the Tutsis, who were in control by then. In retaliation, the Tutsis regrouped and attacked the Hutus president, an ordeal that caused the genocide reaction.|
|Preparation||After the Habyarimana president’s assassination, the Hutus in power began plotting on how to revenge on behalf of their community. The war was funded by influential individuals like Félicien Kabuga, who financed and imported weapons to facilitate the mass killings.|
|Persecution||Targeted killings of Hutu and Tutsi opposition leaders kicked off the genocide. Death lists were created, and those on them were tracked down and executed.|
|Extermination||Those who attempted to flee were shot, while those who remained alive were brutally murdered inside. Many of those who survived the first round of executions were raped and maimed. Conservative Hutus were also assassinated to prevent other Hutus from showing solidarity with Tutsi victims.|
|Denial||The perpetrators, after the genocide, dug mass graves to bury the bodies and sought for escapes to avoid being confined by the laws after RPF took over and stabilized the country. Most of the benefactors of the genocide fled, aiming for protection against their homeland laws. A good example is Félicien Kabuga, who escape to a European country that did not have bi-or multi-lateral treaties with Rwanda|
Dindar, Deniz. “Rwanda Genocide.” Gale, A Cengage Company, 2020, pp. 1-8., Accessed 5 Mar 2021.