Readings for the week and
After completing the following assessment, do you have an internal or an external locus of control? Provide examples to support your answer. Cite your references as needed.
Locus of Control Personality Assessment, my results were 32 points ( Internal Locus of Control (moderate) )
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 1 ISSN 2250-3153
A Review of Personality Types and Locus of Control as
Moderators of Stress and Conflict Management
Lecturer (Prob.), Department of Human Resources, Faculty of Commerce & Management Studies, University of Kelaniya,Kelaniya 11600, Sri Lanka
Today managing conflicts and stresses in organizations became a
prudent factor for gearing the journey of organizational success.
Due to the fact of inevitability of conflicts and stresses (Gultekin
et al.2011) it is vitalto study the factors which affect the level of
conflicts and stresses since root cause of the conflicts and
stresses are incompatible goals of the individuals (Galtun,
1973).Numerous studies examined the role of personality and its
interaction with situational demands to the perceived stress and
ways of coping with stress (Costa, Somerfield, & McCrae, 1996).
Meanwhile, the studies on work- family conflicts (Greenhaus &
Beutell ,1985) elaborated three dimensions; time-based, strain-
based, and behavior-based conflicts. Locus of Control is a strong
positive correlate of mental strain. Externals tend to report more
negative moods when faced with stressful events. Internals tend
to perceive less stress, and have better coping skills (Arsenault,
Dolan, & Ameringen, 1991). Pilisuk and Montgomery (1993)
found that an external Locus of control was related to a greater
number of stress-related somatic symptoms than an internal
Locus of controller. There, the study examines and develop a
model to elicit how A and B Personality types introduced by
Friedman and Rosenman (1974) and locus of control moderate
stresses and conflicts rendering different theories and models and
the impact of coping strategies with the particular personality
Index Terms- A/B Personality Type, Conflict, Coping, Locus of
he words stresses and conflicts (SaC) are most common in
today’s’ world. With the overloaded work and craves SaC
have been internalized and already harbored. Every human in the
world runs a journey which seemingly endless. There SaC are
envisaged since they cannot kept as secluded apart from the man.
Many numbers of researchers have been researched on types of
stresses and conflicts. And found that incompatible goals are the
root cause of SaC (Galtun, 1973). According to Robbins (2000)
“personality” is a state of psychology which leads to human
emotions and behavior. Lazarus (1993) stated that stresses are
psychological rather than physiological. Yet, there is very little
attention has paid on personality types and its’ influence on
conflicts.Only lately researchers have considered the role of
individual difference variables in the work-family link ( Carlson,
1999; Noor, 2003; Stova, Chiu, & Greenhaus, 2002).The
psychological stress is considered as a part of a larger topic, the
emotions. Through many numbers of theoretical aspects it entails
that stress is an emotion which impacts ones psychology. It is
important to note this study discusses on psychological stress and
not on physiological. Stress defines an unfavorable person-
environmental relationship; its essence is process and change
rather than structure or stasis (Lazarus, 1993) and traditional
approaches to coping had emphasized traits or styles–that is,
stable properties of personality.(Lazarus 1966, 1981; Lazarus &
Folkman 1984; Lazarus &Launier 1978).Further, Lazarus stated
in his study (1993) that the personality variables and those that
characterize the environment come together in the appraisal of
relational meaning. An emotion is aroused not just by an
environmental demand, constraint, or resource but by their
juxtaposition with a person’s motives and beliefs. Hence, this
study focuses on how the A and B personality types introduced
by Friedman and Rosenman (1974) clinging to the locus of
control moderate stresses and conflicts. The early research on
locus of control beliefs conceptualized it as a bipolar, Funi-
dimensional construct (Lefcourt, 1976).
External locus of control was conceptualized as a
generalized belief that outcomes are determined by external
factors, whereas an internal locus of control was conceptualized
as the belief that outcomes are contingent on one’s own responses
(Kim L.S et al ,1996). Fogas and colleagues (1992) found
evidence that locus of control was a partial mediator of the
relations between stressful events and anxiety and depression
problems. These researchers show the relationship between stress
and locus of control and how the locus of control influence on
stresses that will be discussed with the early theoretical findings.
Fogas found that an external locus of control orientation was
significantly related to higher stress and lower achievement
orientation. Higher achievement orientation was positively
related to the use of active coping styles. The review by Cohen
and Edwards (1989) concluded that locus of control is the
personality characteristic that provides the most consistent and
the strongest evidence of stress-moderation.
According to the study of Keinan and Tal (2004) type A
behavior is a coping response to the threat of control loss. The
study revealed that Type As are more inclined to stress than
Type Bs and this study was able to comply with Friedman and
Rosenmans’ study on similar. However, these studies examined
the attributional style of the two types A and B personalities;
internal-external. There, it is apparent the relationship among
stress levels, A and B personality types and the locus of control.
This study further renders the relationship among these factors
and in between conflicts and personality.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 2
II. EARLY THEORETICAL FINDINGS
A and B type personality:
Personality, according to (George, 1992), is the enduring
ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behaving, is the first
determinant of how people think and feel about their jobs or job
satisfaction. Policemen’s personality (like every other person)
influences the extent which thoughts and feelings about a job are
positive or negative. (Afolabi, 2011) There are two personality
types, type A and typeB.Type A/B behavior pattern is a
behavioral trait (Spector &O_Connell, 1994) referring to how
one responds to environmental challenges and threats
(Ivancevich& Matteson, 1984).
Type A individuals respond in ways characterized as
aggressive, achievement oriented, dynamic, hard driving,
assertive, fast paced (in eating, walking, and talking), impatient,
competitive, ambitious, irritated, angry, hostile, and under time
pressures (Cooper, Kirkcaldy, & Brown, 1994; Fried- man, 1967;
Jamal, 1990; Rosenman& Chesney, 1985). Type A personalities
are very hurried, impatient and can be hostile and aggressive.
They are very cynical of the world and are very competitive and
tend to be tense and agitated when it comes to work. They have
poor impulse control and feel that they always need to be active
in all things. When it comes to emotions, they express their anger
with outburst and verbal comments, display strong emotional
reactions, can be unpredictable with emotional inconsistency,
and experience negative emotions.
Type As always watches others and can react in a hostile
manner towards others. They like to have control over everything
so they tend to be team leaders but are difficult to please. Type A
personalities are risk takers, rigid and inflexible, and according to
Irikefe (2006), McShane and Von Glinow (2000) this contributed
to their low level of job satisfaction. Type As develop coronary
heart disease (Friedman, 1967; Schaubroeck, Ganster, &
Kemmerer, 1994) and experience more stressors and strains
(Jamal, 1999; Sharpley, Dua, Reynolds, & Acosta, 1995) than
According to the study of Douglas’s the usefulness of the
Type A personality construct has come under serious
examination as it relates to stress. Many authors suggest that
Type A personality is tooglobal a definition and that there are
specific personality traits of Type A individuals thatare more
related to stress than other traits (Matthews, Glass, Rosenman,
&Bortner, 1977;Matthews, 1988). The hostility and irritability
components of Type A behavior (reflectinganger, and an
obsession with time) have been most often linked to stress-
related illnesses.Pred, Spence, &Helmreich (1987) found that
impatience and irritability, but not achievement strivings, were
positively correlated with somatic self-complaints. They argue
that it is highly unlikely that the same components of the Type A
behavior pattern are responsible for both vocational excellence
and stress-related health problems. Additional studies (Bluer,
1990; Matthews, 1988; Robbins, et al., 1991) show that certain
Type A traits like anger, impatience, and irritability are more
likely to lead to stress-related health problems than achievement
On the other hand, Type Bs are open to criticism and they try
to make others feel accepted and at ease and so they are more
satisfied with their jobs. When they are angry, they use humour
subtly to make their point, but they are angry about the issue not
the person. They can be more accepting of emotions and tend to
go with the mood at the moment. They are supportive of others
and are more likely to express positive feelings and be more
satisfied with their jobs (Kirkcaldy et al., 2002). Type B
individuals are casual, easygoing, and never in a rush to get
things done (Bortner, 1969).
People’s values, attitudes, abilities, and emotion vary. This is
probably because of the differences in personality. Personality is
defined as the combination of stable physical and mental
characteristics that gives the individual his or her uniqueness.
These characteristics or traits, including how one looks, acts, and
feels are the products of interacting genetic and environmental
influences. (Afolabi, 2011)
Type A is one of the few personality characteristics that has
been previously studied in relation to WFC. Individuals who
exhibit Type A behavior are characterized as being ambitious,
competitive, impatient, and aggressive or hostile. Individuals
lacking these characteristics are relaxed and patient, and are
referred to as Type B (Spence, Helmreich, &Pred, 1987). Type A
individuals experience a keen sense of time urgency, are more
likely to be involved in conflict with coworkers, more overloaded
at work, and more likely to be overcommitted than Type B
individuals (Baron, 1989; Jamal & Baba, 1991; Strube,
1991).According to the study of Bruck et al…Type A behavior
would be more likely to relate to WFC than would the
achievement striving dimension.
III. LOCUS OF CONTROL
Internal–external LOC refers to an individuals beliefs that
she or he has control over events (Phares, 1968; Ritchie &Phares,
1969; Rotter, 1975; Terborg, 1985). Internals generally believe
they are primarily responsible for and in control of what happens
to them; externals generally believe mainly other people or
forces beyond themselves determine major events in their lives.
Previous research (e.g., Harari, Jones, &Sek, 1988; Kirkcaldy &
Cooper, 1992; Spector & O_Connell, 1994) showed that internals
tended to report more stressors and strains than internals.
The single personality characteristic acting as a stress-
mediator to which stress researchers have paid the most attention
is locus of control (Kobassa, 1993). Control is expressed as a
tendency to feel and act as if one is influential (rather than
helpless).Individuals with an internal LC believe their
reinforcements are contingent on their own behavior, capacities,
and attributes. External LC individuals believe their
reinforcements are under the control of powerful others, luck, or
fate (Rotter, 1966). Internal LC individuals possess a pervasive,
enduring feeling of confidence that one’s internal and external
environments are predictable and that there is a high probability
that all things will work out as well as can be expected dependent
on their own efforts (Kobassa, &Puccetti, 1983 ). This implies
the perception of oneself as having a definite influence on life
events through the exercise of imagination, skill, knowledge, and
choice. Internal LC individuals also tend to have higher
achievement motivation, be more purposeful and goal-directed,
be more extroverted, sociable, active, and less neurotic and
dogmatic than externals (Ormel, & Schaufeli, 1991). LC is a
strong positive correlate of mental strain. Externals tend to report
more negative moods when faced with stressful events. Internals
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 3
tend to perceive less stress, and have better coping skills
(Arsenault, Dolan, &Ameringen, 1991).
IV. WORK- FAMILY CONFLICTS (WFC)
Greenhaus and Beutell (1985) defined WFC as occurring
when an individual_s efforts to fulfill roles at work interfere with
efforts to fulfill roles outside of work and vice versa. Greenhaus
and Beutell identified three dimensions of WFC: time-based,
strain-based, and behavior-based conflict. Time-based conflict
occurs when time spent on activities in one role impede the
fulfillment of responsibilities in another role. Strain-based
conflict occurs when pressures from one role interfere with
fulfilling the requirements of another role. The source of these
pressures can arise from either the work (Jones & Butler, 1980)
or the family domain ( Chadwick, Albrecht,& Kunz, 1976;
Eiswirth-Neems&Handal, 1978; Holahan& Gilbert, 1979).Lastly,
behavior-based conflict occurs when behaviors performed in one
role are difficultto adjust to be compatible with behavior patterns
in another role. As underscored by the dimensions of WFC,
conflict can originate in the workplace and interfere with the
family (WIF conflict), or conflict can originate in the family and
interfere with work (FIW conflict). Thus, the nature of WFC is
that it is bidirectional and that it consists of time-based, strain-
based, and behavior-based conflict.
Work–family conflict (WFC) has become a growing topic of
interest among researchers due to its implications for both
organizations and employees (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton,
2000). The majority of WFC research to date has focused on the
consequences of WFC, and two recent reviews have identified
multiple work-related, non work-related, and stress-related
outcomes associated with WFC (Allen et al., 2000;
The dominant theoretical approach has been based on role
theory (Kahn,Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964) and the
examination of role variables such as role conflict, role
ambiguity, and role overload (Aryee, 1992; Bacharach,
Bamberger, & Conley, 1991). Another area of focus has been on
demographic factors such as gender, marital status, and number
of children (Greenhaus, Collins, Singh, &Parasuraman, 1997),
and number of hours worked per week (Burke, Weir, &DuWors,
1980). Although these studies have provided significant insights
into the causes of WFC, the address of personality factors on
WFC is less. Bruck et al…’s study was to further investigate
correlates of WFC through an examination of the relationships
between dispositional or personality variables and WFC.
Specifically, Type A behavior and negative affectivity are the
only two dispositional variables that have garnered research
attention in relation to WFC (Burke, 1988;Carlson, 1999; Frone,
Stoeva et al., 1992).
The process of coping is a stabilizing factor that helps
individuals maintain psychosocial adaptation during stressful
episodes (Holahan, & Moos, 1987). This process is complex but
it is directed toward moderating the impact of life events on
individual’s physical, and social functions (Billings, & Moos,
Coping with stressful events is viewed as a dynamic process
consisting of the environmental Stressors (i.e. demands,
constraints), a cognitive appraisal process, levels of stress
experienced psycho-physiologically/behaviorally, and coping
responses, behaviors, or styles (Lalack, 1986). The bulk of this
discussion will deal with the appraisal process and work done on
coping responses, behaviors, or styles.
Folkman and Lazarus (1984, 1985, 1988) developed the
cognitive theory of psychological stress and coping. It views the
process as transactional in that the person and the environment
are in a dynamic, mutually reciprocal, relationship. In order for
individuals to experience stress, they first must appraise the
situation as threatening or challenging. Cognitive appraisal is the
process whereby the person evaluates whether an encounter with
the environment is relevant lo his or her well-being, and in what
way (Folkman, Lazarus, Gruen, &DeLongis, 1986). The process
of appraisal actively negotiates between the demands of the
environment and the goals and beliefs of the individual.
Appraisal consists of both primary and secondary appraisal.
In primary appraisal, the individual evaluates whether he/she has
anything at stake in an encounter with the environment. It is the
interpretation of the situation, rather than some objective quality
of the situation, that determines its stressfulness to the individual.
Secondary appraisal is the process of thinking of responses to a
situation deemed threatening or challenging. It involves
judgments regarding available options. Various coping options
are evaluated for their worth and chance of success in a particular
Appraisal is affected by both situation and person factors.
One of the main points made by Folkman and Lazarus (1984)
though, is that one’s beliefs about one’s mastery over the
environment may have significant effects on threat or challenge
appraisals. LC is related to beliefs about mastery of the
environment and is thought to affect the appraisal process and
influence the coping responses made. This will be discussed in
more detail later, but generally internal LC individuals are less
likely to report being threatened by a Stressor and more
accepting of Stressors deemed unchangeable (Vitaliano, Russo,
Internal LC individuals tend to have better coping skills than
externals (Arsenault, et al., 1991). They tend to use more
instrumental strategies and engage in less task-irrelevant self-
preoccupation (Solomon, 1988). As Pinwall and Taylor (1992)
believe that an internal LC leads people to adopt active coping
strategies by contributing to a sense of self confidence needed to
confront problems directly. The trait approach to coping (Bolger,
1990; Holahan, & Moos, 1986) assumes that coping responses
are a property of the person and are influenced by biology,
personality, learning, and socialization. In the trait approach,
coping responses are referred to as coping styles- any pattern of
coping behavior which an individual exhibits over the longer-
term, resulting either from the way the individual tends to
appraise events, or from semi-habitual behavior (Newton, &
Keenan, 1990). These long-term coping styles may exist
relatively independently of the environment, and they might also
be conditioned through learning the relative efficacy of different
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 4
coping responses. This definition of coping styles acknowledges
that people may have a tendency to cope in a certain way over
time. This coping style may result because the person tends to
appraise events in a certain way, because they have a tendency to
behave in a certain way, or the coping style may be a product of
existence in a certain type of environment (e.g. very high demand
In the trait approach to coping, people do not approach each
coping context anew, but bring a preferred set of coping
strategies that remains relatively fixed across time and
circumstances. Certain personality dispositions in fact, such as
internal LC, constructive thinking, self-confidence, learned
resourcefulness, self-efficacy, optimism, a desire for mastery,
and hardiness all appear related to certain coping styles (Lazarus,
1993) that will be discussed later. These facets of personality
affect a variety of factors in the coping situation to include range
of coping responses considered, interpretation of the stressful
event, and effort expended on coping.
Even Folkman and Lazarus (the major proponents of the
process approach to coping) admit that there are relatively stable
coping styles and that to understand stress, we must consider
individual differences in motivational and cognitive variables
which intervene between the Stressor and the reaction (Lazarus,
1993). Buntrock and Reddy (1992) provide further argument for
studying coping styles. Even though appraisal can change
throughout a stressful encounter as a result of the bidirectional
influence of the person and the environment, and the
environment/situation is important to consider in understanding
the coping process, focusing on change does not preclude
investigating the influence of personality traits on the coping
process. They argue that looking at only one specific stressful
encounter makes it difficult to determine whether or not a coping
strategy is effective. A single coping strategy may be effective in
only some domains.( Douglas, 1995)
VI. A AND B TYPE PERSONALITY &LOCUS OF CONTROL ARE COMBINED FACTORS
Robbins et al. (1991) found that stress-related problems
correlated only with negative affect characteristics- low self-
esteem, pervasive dissatisfaction, disgust, anger, irritability,
hostility, and guilt, but not achievement strivings. The hostility
and irritability components of Type A behavior (reflecting anger,
and an obsession with time) have been most often linked to
stress-related illnesses. Pred, Spence, &Helmreich (1987) found
that impatience and irritability, but not achievement strivings,
were positively correlated with somatic self-complaints.
As per the theoretical aspect on locus of control Internal LC
individuals possess a pervasive, enduring feeling of confidence
that one’s internal and external environments are predictable and
that there is a high probability that all things will work out as
well as can be expected dependent on their own efforts (Kobassa,
&Puccetti, 1983 ). Internal LC individuals also tend to have
higher achievement motivation, be more purposeful and goal-
directed, be more extroverted, sociable, active, and less neurotic
and dogmatic than externals (Ormel, &Schaufeli, 1991).
LC is a strong positive correlate of mental strain. Externals
tend to report more negative moods when faced with stressful
events. Internals tend to perceive less stress, and have better
coping skills (Arsenault, Dolan, &Ameringen, 1991).
These studies elaborate the relationship between A Type
personality characteristics and the external locus of controllers’
behavioral characteristics are most frequently common. And the
relationship between internal locus of control and B type
personality; external locus of control and A type personality is
inevitable. Yet, it is proven Locus of control and A/B type
personalities are combined and they act simultaneously for a
given external situation.
VII. LOCUS CONTROL AND WFC
Little attention has been paid to the effects of personality
factors on work-family conflict. Only lately have researchers
considered the role of individual difference variables in the
work-family link ( Carlson, 1999; Noor, 2003). The study by
Carlson (1999) showed that Type A and negative affectivity
(NA) explained for significant additional variance beyond those
attributed by the role variables (role ambiguity and role conflict)
in the work and family domains. In addition, Stova et al. (2002)
examined the mechanisms by which NA influenced work-family
conflict and found that NA played both mediator and moderator
roles in the relationship between role stress (job stress and family
stress) and work-family conflict. The study by Noor (2002) used
another personality variable that of locus of control, in the
relationship between work-family conflict and well-being to
examine the different pathways control can impact upon well-
being. However, in this case, work-family conflict was
considered as the antecedent, rather than the outcome variable.
Locus of control, the generalized belief on the part of the
individual concerning the extent to which outcomes are
determined by internal factors (such as personal effort and
ability) as opposed to external ones (such as fate, chance or
powerful others), is chosen as the personality variable of interest
in this study. Past studies in the areas of both work and general
life stresses have indicated the beneficial effect of internal
control beliefs on well-being (Frese, 1989). Following from this
reasoning, a sense of control should be associated with less
work-family conflict. While control is a personality trait, it may
also reflect the degree to which individuals actually does have
control over the environment.
An individual learns through social interaction and personal
experiences whether his/her actions and efforts affect outcomes
or not. In addition, locus of control has been shown to moderate
the relationship between stress and mental health outcomes
(Parkes, 1994). The review by Cohen and Edwards (1989)
concluded that locus of control is the personality characteristic
that provides the most consistent and the strongest evidence of
stress-moderation. In this case, external control was found to act
as a vulnerability factor. Having supportive workplace policies
offers workers the opportunities to exercise initiative and
independent judgment, giving them a sense of autonomy and
control within the workplace. A sense of control originating
within the workplace may promote feelings of efficacy and
effectiveness in coping with the environment leading to less
work-family conflict being experienced.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 5
VIII. COPING, LOCUS OF CONTROL AND PERSONALITY
Evidence has accumulated indicating that various personality
characteristics, such as locus of control and optimism, are related
to how people cope with stress (Lefcourt, 1980). For example, an
optimistic orientation has been associated with increased
problem-solving efforts (Scheier& carver, 1987), especially in
controllable situations (Scheier et al., 1986). Also, intemal locus
of control beliefs have been found to be associated with
increased problem-focused coping or more adaptive coping
(Anderson, l97l; Parkes, 1984).
The cognitive-relational theory of stress (Lazarus
&Folkman, 1984) postulates that the effects of personality on
coping are mediated by cognitive appraisal. More specifically,
secondary appraisal (Lazarus, 1966;Lazarus&Launier, 1978) has
been hypothesized as playing an important mediating role. A
major function of secondary appraisal is to determine what can
be done about a stressful event, or whether it is controllable
(Wong & Weiner, 1981).Control appraisals assess whether
personal coping resources are capable of meeting situational
demands (Folkman, 1984).
IX. THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG COPING, LOCUS OF CONTROL, STRESS AND CONFLICTS
A positive association between appraisal of the situation as
controllable (changeable) and problem-focused coping has been
reported in several studies (Bachrach&Zautra, 1985; Folkman&
Lazarus, 1980; Folkman, Lazatts, Dunkel-Schetter) .However,
Forsythe and Compas (1981) found that perceived control of an
event was associated with problem-focused coping for major life
events but not for daily problems. Furthermore, conflicting
results have been obtained concerning the relation between
control appraisals and other types of coping (e.g. Folkman&
Lazarus, 1985; Stone & Neale, 1984).
Coping schemas represent generalized knowledge about
which coping strategies are effective in common stressful
situations. The objective of coping schemas is to reduce stress
and resolve problems. When a person is faced with a stressful
situation, coping schemas determine the specific coping
strategies to be utilized. The selection of coping strategies is
based on accumulated knowledge of the characteristics of
situations, coping responses available, and the effectiveness of
these coping strategies for different situations. Each coping
schema is a fuzzy category of the coping strategies most effective
for a given type of situation. Therefore, once a coping schema is
activated, the coping strategies most representative of the schema
or most typically effective will be selected (Peacock, 1996).
Reker& Wong (1984b) proposed a two dimensional view of
optimism: people’s expectation of positive outcomes can be
based on either confidence in one’s own efficacy or an
expectation of good forlune. Both internally based optimism (e.g.
perceived self-efficacy) and extremely based optimism (e.g.
belief in good luck) may contribute to the expectation of positive
outcomes (Marshall & Lang, 1990; Reker& Wong, 1984)
According to the congruence model introduced by Peacock,
Wong, &Reker in 1993, locus of control beliefs and optimism
affect coping primarily through their impact on control
appraisals. For example,a person with strong internal control
beliefs is more likely to view a stressful situation as personally
controllable and this appraisal will result in increased problem-
focused coping efforts. (Peacock & Wong, 1996) This renders
that the internal locus of controllers are more likely to cope up
with stresses and conflicts in a positive way while they are
emotionally controllable. Similarly, an optimistic individual, who
expects positive outcomes, is also likely to view a problem as
manageable and consequently engage in more problem-focused
Much research shows the relation between LC and stress.
Antonovsky (1979) proposed the construct of stress-resistance
resources (a combination of internal locus of control and a
supportive social network) as the most beneficial moderator of
stress. Pilisuk and Montgomery (1993) feel that LC may be the
central psychosocial variable in resistance to stress-related
illness. They found that an external LC was related to a greater
number of stress-related somatic symptoms than an internal LC,
and that LC was a reliable predictor of stress-related physical
symptoms. These authors believe that one’s sense of control may
affect the types of coping strategies used and this is the link
between LC and stress. LC orientation may influence reactions to
Stressors through use of specific types of coping strategies.
The literature elaborate A and B personality type and locus
of control are glued combined factors. And these psychological
states rise simultaneously in a particular external situation.
Therefore, the researcher discusses LC and A/B personality type
as a combined factor in the paper. Further, deriving personality
characteristics from LC behavioral characteristics the researcher
discusses the relationship between LC and stress; personality and
stress; WFC and LC and how coping strategies balance all the
factors. Most of the authors developed models and discussed
theories on how conflicts and which type of conflicts lead to
stress and which type of stressors. Here, the researcher by
reviewing different authors’ findings derived a model in order to
elicit the relationship between stress and conflicts. And how
stress leads to conflicts and how personality factors affect on
each variable. The model renders that the stress cause for
conflicts and conflicts cause for stress in vice-versa. Further, the
researcher has studied a moderating variable for stress and
conflicts;which is A and B type personality factor combing with
Locus of control. Therefore, it is considered both LC and A and
B personality factors as moderating variables. And the literature
proves all variables are influenced by the coping strategies of the
According to the social learning theory personality types can
be changed with the life experiences and exposes. Hence, when a
person gets stress and it moderates by the personality combining
LC he is the person who lets that stress in to a conflict or not. It
is vital to study individual differences and make an environment
where people do not expose to a conflicting climate. Especially,
organizations which take their transformation in to a learning
organization should recognize the individual differences since
the organization itself can create a place where people do not
engage in conflicts by changing their surroundings. And the
social learning theory is a rational and vital practice to study in
doing the change in people by changing their personalities.
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 6
XI. CONCLUDED MODEL
The researcher has elaborated the relationship between
stress and conflicts via getting a combined moderating variable
(A and B type personality and LC). Thus, the paper presents the
vitality of managing personality characteristics in order to
prevent potential conflicts and unnecessary illnesses due to
stresses. According to the reviewed literature and through a
thorough study of relationships of each variable the researcher
develops a model to exhibit the relationship between each
variable and how stress leads to conflicts via personalities and
coping. The model renders that a person who can manage his
emotions can control his own stresses while coping in a positive
way. Either he would be able to cope-up or tolerate the external
cause since stresses are psychological rather physiological
according to the literature. Cope –up controls the human
psychology towards an external stimulus or stimuli. Thus, there
are many ways of balancing A and B type personality traits and
locus of control situations rather sticking to extremes. According
to Rotter none of the personality types or type of the Locus of
control is not right or wrong. They are only psychological states.
The needed factor is maintaining a balanced behavior rather
expecting too much, being over estimated or being depend on
fate, being too much easy going. That is known to be stress
management and conflict management. Regardless the occasion,
situation or on a time knowing the root cause for conflicts and
stresses gives a countless value since it leads to inner peace.
Whenever, a person is internally peaceful, calm and self well-
behaved the external stimuli cannot make a sabotage to the inner
peace or to the psychology of the particular. There, it leads to
reduced stressors and conflicts in organizations, families, in
relationships and within the person. The paper presents the model
to emphasize the vitality of knowing the root cause of these
stresses and conflicts for the management of the root causes by
developing coping strategies. These strategies can be either
problem focused or emotion focused. Taking decisions are
sudden and unexpected. Yet, it determines by the personality and
the locus of control simultaneously. Practice makes everyone
better. Therefore, practice of balancing these moderating factors
A & B
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2014 7
would be much important rather moving to take any action in
order to prevent stresses or conflicts. Because it is always
advisable that “prevention is better than cure”.
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First Author – R.K.N.D.Darshani, Lecturer (Prob.), Department
of Human Resources, Faculty of Commerce & Management
Studies, University of Kelaniya,Kelaniya 11600, Sri Lanka,
Mobile; +94784808383, Email: email@example.com
22-25 Internal Locus of Control (strong)
26-33 Internal Locus of Control (moderate)
34-44 External Locus of Control
Note: This assessment has not been validated and is intended for illustrative purposes only. It is patterned after the Locus of Control Scale developed and presented in Rotter, J.B. (1966), “Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement,” Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).
Internal Locus of Control (strong)
If you have a strong internal locus of control, you will likely feel that you’re in full control of the events in your life. You are self-motivated and focused on achieving the goals you have set for yourself. For these reasons, people with a strong internal locus of control often make good leaders.
However, there is a potential downside to having a very strong internal locus of control. Your powerful self-belief may mean that you find it difficult to take direction, so be careful to avoid seeming arrogant or “walking over” other people in pursuit of your objectives. And be sure to manage risks properly – random events do occur for all sorts of reasons.
A very strong internal drive may lead you to believe that you can control everything, and if your plans don’t work out you may feel responsible for their failure – even when events were genuinely beyond your control. This can lead to frustration, anxiety and, in extreme cases, stress or depression.
Internal Locus of Control (moderate)https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/managing-arrogant-people.htmhttps://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_07.htm
You likely see your future as being in your own hands. As a result, you engage in activities that will improve your situation: you work hard to develop your knowledge, skills and abilities, and you take note of information that you can use to create positive outcomes.
However, few people have a wholly internal or external locus of control: most of us fall somewhere between the two ends of the spectrum. Your locus of control may vary in different situations – at work and at home, for example – and it may change over time. People often tend toward a more internal locus of control as they grow older and their ability to influence the events in their lives increases.
Having a moderate, rather than strong, internal locus of control may make you more able to accept situations that you can’t influence, and to manage them effectively when they arise.
External Locus of Control
If you have an external locus of control, you likely believe that what happens to you is the result of luck or fate, or is determined by people in authority. You may tend to give up when life doesn’t “go your way,” because you don’t feel that you have the power to change it.
To overcome this, pay attention to your self-talk . When you hear yourself saying things like “I have no choice,” or “There’s nothing I can do,” step back and remind yourself that you can always make choices. Set goals for yourself and note how you are making positive changes in your life by working toward and achieving these goals. You’ll find that your self-confidence quickly builds.
You may find it useful to develop your decision making and problem-solving skills. These tools can enable you to take greater ownership of situations, rather than blaming circumstances or forces “beyond your control” when things go wrong.https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTCS_06.htmhttps://www.mindtools.com/page6.htmlhttps://www.mindtools.com/selfconf.htmlhttps://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htmhttps://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htmhttps://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/developing-personal-accountability.htm