Models of Addiction

Epigenetics refers to the study of functions that are mostly inherited in the regulation of the activities of gene and expressions that doesn’t depend on gene sequence. The environmental activities and exposure can remodel the structure of DNA at the level of the organism through the epigenetic regulatory system, thus developing different types of cells in organs such as the liver, skin, or nerve cells. It is generational thus affects the health of an individual and transfer the expression of the trait to the children and grandchildren (Fuller, 2017). If a person is using opium, the DNA can increase the production of protein which is common in addiction thus increase in the level of protein will correspond to the behavior of drug-seeking in the animals. The change in the chromatin alignment leads to the development of chronic substance abuse, hence the administration of drugs being abused triggers epigenetic alteration to regulate transcriptions (Berkel and Pandey, 2017). The change of expression of a gene influences the reward on drug craving, relapse, and psychomotor activities.

Learning Theory Model

The learning theory model of addiction explains that the use of alcohol and drugs used are learned behavior that persists because of differential reinforcement from other individuals, from the thoughts and feelings, from the environment, and direct influence of alcohol. The idea of the learning theory model is mediated through a cognitive process that requires the direct experience of the action. The psychological changes explain the urge of addiction to use certain drugs or consume alcohol by a person since there is automatic thought of using a certain substance to either have peace of mind or relieve boredom and tiresomeness (Mathew et al., 2017). Addiction is control by shifting the mind to something else and practicing a different culture to develop a new thought on an activity. It helps reducing consumption since the engagement will deviate the thought of an individual.

The social behaviors are reinforced by offering rewards to remove the psychological discomforts in a person through the offering of special activities such as games and book reading and appreciating the character of a person to motivate them and clapping and cheering them when their addiction level changes. The reinforcement helps in increasing the probability that a specific problem can occur in the future when removing a stimulus after a certain behavior. The action promotes reoccurrence of behavior in either a positive, punishment, or extinction of addiction by an individual (Maleki et al., 2019). The technique used in reinforcement should strengthen the ground and reduce the amount of shear deformation of behavior during the transformation of a character.

Biopsychosocial Model

Addiction development in biopsychosocial model entails the genetics, socio-cultural and psychological factors contribute to the consumption of substance and should be considered for treatment. It involves biological characteristics such as genes, social conditions such as family relationships, and behavioral factors such as lifestyles and health beliefs that affect the behavior of an individual.  Its treatment involves the health officials recognizing that relationships are central in healthcare provision and promotion of self-awareness as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool to the patients (Strickland and Stoops, 2019). They provide a dimensional treatment after eliciting the patients’ history in life circumstance context. It is treated through a systematic approach and consideration of biological, social, and psychological factors and their interaction in understanding health care delivery, illness, and general information. The humanistic qualities are highly valued to complement to biopsychosocial approach through the use of scientific methods in diverting the social phenomenon is related to human health.

Part 2: Disorder in the Biopsychosocial Model

An eating disorder is developed when an individual feel more interested in the consumption of a certain item due to influence from other people or surroundings. It results from the development of a structure in sociocultural aspects in the immediate environment to promote the use and consumption of an item in the society. The biomedical approaches analyze the eating disorder, and the results show that people eat to relieve stress or to the improvement of personality traits (Cataldo et al., 2019). The reason some smokers are based on cultural and social norms that are hereditary from a certain generation. Food addiction is caused by the generational social economic status that creates an environment that aims at food development and availability. An adequate food environment for a person leads to food addiction since many people can access the large quantity of food on the table. Additionally, stress, trauma, and adversity have led to increased consumption of food and addiction through an emphasis on the social factors that caused someone to feel addicted to a certain food.

These people believe that the remedy for trauma is eating food hence high addiction as it is on biological embedding to food availability and exposure. The weight stigma has also initiated the food addiction criteria by people since they intend to maintain their balance by consuming more food (Ndasauka, Wei, and Zhang, 2017). The neurobiological overlaps between obesity and addiction are the pathway between the ventral tegmental area and further projection of the limbic and cortical region. The epigenetic people comprise of the frequent craving of certain foodstuffs despite feeling full and having the urge of eating more. The addiction causes people to hid unhealthy food from others and hence affect the food addiction is a complex mental health issue that can have serious complications if left untreated, it is highly recommended that professional help be sought to effectively heal from this disorder.

References

Berkel, T. D., & Pandey, S. C. (2017). Emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol addiction. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research41(4), 666-680.

Cataldo, I., Azhari, A., Coppola, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Esposito, G. (2019). The influences of drug abuse on mother-infant interaction through the lens of the biopsychosocial model of health and illness: A review. Frontiers in public health7, 45.

Fuller, J. (2017). The new medical model: a renewed challenge for biomedicine. CMAJ189(17), E640-E641.

Maleki, N., Tahaney, K., Thompson, B. L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2019). At the intersection of alcohol use disorder and chronic pain. Neuropsychology33(6), 795.

Mathew, A. R., Hogarth, L., Leventhal, A. M., Cook, J. W., & Hitsman, B. (2017). Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model. Addiction112(3), 401-412.

Ndasauka, Y., Wei, Z., & Zhang, X. (2017). Received view of addiction, relapse and treatment. Substance and Non-substance Addiction, 3-19.

Strickland, J. C., & Stoops, W. W. (2019). The use of crowdsourcing in addiction science research: Amazon Mechanical Turk. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology27(1), 1.

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