Nutritional Diet Plan

Mediterranean Diet

The diet is based on traditional foods consumed in the 1960s by countries like Greece and Italy. Researchers noted that the people living in these countries were exceptionally healthy compared to the people living in America and were less susceptible to lifestyle diseases (Gunnars, 2017). In this regard, numerous studies have demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet can lead to weight loss and prevent some diseases such as strokes, premature death, heart attack diseases and heart attack (Gunnars, 2017). Usually, there are no right ways to follow the Mediterranean diet because many countries around the Mediterranean Sea region and people in the different areas consume different foods (Gunnars, 2017). However, for professionalism in diet consumption, there is a set of rules to follow when using the Mediterranean diet.

Rules to Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean Diet rules are defined by the foods to eat and the foods not recommended for eating. The foods in this concern relate to cooked foods, snacks, and drinks (Gunnars, 2017).

Foods to Eat

The foods that are incorporated into the Mediterranean diet are controversial because there exists variation between distinct countries. Many of the studies examine healthy plant foods that have relatively low animal food content. However, fish and other related seafood consumption are highly recommended at least two days a week (Gunnars, 2017). Moreover, the Mediterranean lifestyle incorporates regular physical activity, enjoying life, and sharing meals with others. In this regard, the diet is based on healthy and unprocessed foods, as explained below.

Recommended Foods

            The foods recommended for consumption are categorized into vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, legumes, tubers, poultry, healthy fats, and Fish & Seafood (Gunnars, 2017).

  • Vegetables – Spinach, tomatoes, onions, kales, Brussels, carrots, broccoli, cucumbers, and sprouts.
  • Fruits – Apples, pears, grapes, melons, strawberries, figs, peaches, oranges, and bananas.
  • Nut and Seeds – walnuts, hazelnuts, sunflower, pumpkin seeds, Almond seeds, and Macadamia seeds.
  • Legumes – Pulses, chickpeas, beans, lentils, and pulses.
  • Tubers – sweet potatoes, yams, potatoes, and turnips.
  • Poultry – Turkey, chicken, and Duck.
  • Healthy Fats – Avocados and Avocado oils, olives and extra virgin valid olive oil
  • Fish and Sea Food – trout, tuna, shrimp, clams, mackerel, crabs, mussels, and Sardines.

Recommended Drinks

            The rules relating to drinks refer that water should be of paramount importance in the diet. Moreover, red wine is recommended for at least one glass a day. However, red wine is optional as it should be avoided, especially by individuals with alcohol problems who are highly addicted to alcoholism (Gunnars, 2017). Additionally, tea and coffee are entirely acceptable, although fruit juices and sugar-sweetened beverages with high sugar content should be avoided in the Mediterranean diet.

Unhealthy Foods to be Avoided

In Mediterranean diets, some unhealthy foods and ingredients should be avoided. For instance, added sugar foods such as ice cream, soda, candies, and soda (Gunnars, 2017). Secondly, refined grains such as pasta made of refined wheat and white bread should be avoided. Trans fat found in margarine and processed food should also be avoided (Gunnars, 2017). Additionally, refined oils such as cottonseed oil, soyabean oil, and canola oil. Moreover, processed meat relating to hot dogs and processed sausages should be avoided. Concerning processed foods, any food labeled as diet or low fat made from factories should be avoided in preparing the Mediterranean diet.

Effectiveness and Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet

Research shows that the Mediterranean diet has consistently been effective as it reduces the risk of cardiovascular-related disease and overall mortality (Berry, 2019). Different studies also indicated that more than 26,000 women were found to follow a Mediterranean diet, resulting in a 25% reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease attack in a course period of 12 years (Berry, 2019). Concerning the Mediterranean diet’s sustainability, it has scientifically provided evidence for being healthy together with socio-cultural and economic benefits. Moreover, it has provided a guarantee to many people in society regarding health development and sustainability.

Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

Mediterranean diet is associated with vast benefits. Firstly, it prevents strokes and heart disease as it limits the intake involves foods like red meat, processed foods, refined bread, and hard liquor (Martini, 2019). Secondly, the diet keeps an individual agile as the nutrients gained reduce muscle weakness development. Thirdly, it reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s as it improves blood sugar levels and cholesterol, resulting in a reduced risk of dementia (Martini, 2019). Additionally, it increases longevity by reducing cancer and heart disease and, in the long run, decreases the risk of death. Also, the Mediterranean diet protects an individual against type 2 diabetes because it is rich in fiber that slowly digests in the body and maintains a healthy weight (Martini, 2019).

Drawbacks of Mediterranean Diet

Despite the benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet, there exist some drawbacks related to the diet. Firstly, the diet is usually more expensive to follow as it selectively chooses the meals to take, which are somehow expensive to budget for (Scannell et al., 2020). Moreover, the ingredients recommended are costly to purchase; hence it tends to be reserved for the rich. Additionally, cooking the diet takes more time to cook and thus not appropriate for rush foods (Scannell et al., 2020). Moreover, the diet is not designed for weight loss. Weight loss has been a challenge to many individuals around the globe. It has even contributed to numerous diseases, such as obesity (Scannell et al., 2020). Therefore, it is a primary concern for all people to consider weight loss which is not offered in the Mediterranean diet.

Vegetarian Diet Vegan Diet

Both Vegans and Vegetarians work by restricting consumption of animal products such as fish and meat. This means vegetables and other plant supplements are consumed in-state of animal products. In this case, both meat and fish are not vegetables in nature. Most of these animals’ byproducts contain almost the same level of proteins or even high in some cases.  Both vegan and vegetarian diets provide various benefits to the body, such as lowering cholesterol levels, reducing cardiovascular disease risk, and reducing body weight.

Rules of Vegan and Vegetarian diet

Rules in Vegan and vegetarian diet is that the animals’ products need to be avoided and utilize plants products as the best diet (Brytek, 2020). Vegan and vegetarian diets can be healthy for the body, but these two diets do not have specific nutrients essential in building the body’s immunity. Despite many Vegan restrictions on the consumption of animal products and byproducts, one needs to be vigilant to ensure that their diet contains some amount of proteins, iron, VitaminB12, and calcium. However, most of the mention minerals are found in dairy products and eggs. Healthy heart fats can be derived from consuming the supplements of the plant-based diet.

Foods to be Included in Vegan and Vegetarian diet

To be more creative, a vegan may find some minerals in sources like plants, while a vegetarian may find these minerals in dairy products and mostly in eggs. Vitamin B12 can be derived from the consideration of supplements if one is vegan.

Foods Excluded in the Vegan and Vegetarian diet.

The strictest form of vegetarianism is the vegans, which prohibits using or consuming those products from the animals such as eggs, wool, silk, dairy, leather goods, and honey. On the other hand, vegetarians may consume dairy products like honey, eggs, and other byproducts that do not include meat consumption from the slaughter animals.

How Vegetarian and Vegan diet Works

Both Vegans and Vegetarians work by restricting consumption of animal products such as fish and meat.Vegan and vegetarian diets can be healthy for the body, but these two diets do not have specific nutrients essential in building the body’s immunity (Kalantar-Zadeh et al., 2019). Despite many Vegan restrictions on the consumption of animal products and byproducts, one needs to be vigilant to ensure that their diet contains some amount of proteins, iron, VitaminB12, and calcium. However, most of the mention minerals are found in dairy products and eggs. Healthy heart fats can be derived from consuming the supplements of the plant-based diet.

Effectiveness of the Vegetarian and Vegan diet

Both vegans and vegetarians need to make sure that the diets meet all the nutrition requirements. If they want wants to control their weight, then consumption of vegetarian and vegan diets is essential. One needs to take heavy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fewer foods full of saturated fats, like shill milk, cheese, and ice cream.

Sustainability of the Vegetarian and Vegan Diet

The change in the dietary pattern tailored towards reducing consumption of animal foods is the best way of obtaining sustainability in meals. Environmental impacts are not the only factor in determining the diet’s sustainability but instate affordability, cultural acceptability, and nutritional adequacy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

Benefits and Drawbacks of Vegetarian and Vegan Diet

The major benefit of vegetarian diet is weight loss. It is evident that vegan diet involves little amount of calories. On the other hand, vegan diet have nutritional problem because of specializing only in plant products only.

Intermittent Fasting and Keto Diet

Intermittent fasting involves the use of new craze in the diet as a supplement. This revolves around the timing of one’s food intake. On the other hand, a Ketogenic diet involves dictating success by consuming protein and fats while restricting carbs (Stockman et al., 2019). The main question here is how often and when do you eat and how much does one eat. This kind of diet aims at reducing body weight after eating.

Rules in Intermittent Fasting and Ketogenic diet

Skip Meals

One needs to skip meals to provide time for fasting. This involves choosing to either skip breakfast or skip lunch.

Eating Windows

This involves condensing one’s macronutrients whereby taking meal s is only a window hour of 4 and 7; other hours is for fasting.

Hour cleanse of 24-28

This involves fasting for one or two days.

Foods to be included.

All the meals rich of minerals rich foods like avocado, salmon and leafy greens

Food to be avoided

All foods rich in carbohydrates and cholesterol need to avoid in the diet.

How intermittent and Fasting Ketogenic diet works

This is all about planning appropriately when to start and how to start fasting. One can begin by first skipping breakfast, then goes to a few hours fasting, then later only some days fasting (Fedorovich et al., 2018). A culture of not overeating will be developed with time. In most cases, intermittent fasting will improve health, lose fat through the insulin reduction process, autophagy, and ketone production.

Effectiveness of the Diet

Intermittent fasting and a Ketogenic diet are effective in reducing the weight of the body. A balance between carbohydrates and fats’ consumption will enable the body to burn extra fast while the insulin process will reduce excess carbohydrates.

Sustainability of the Diet

The intermittent and Ketogenic diet s sustainable since it involves less or no cost to be incurred. In most cases the meals utilized in this diet are less costly compared to others.

Benefits and Drawbacks of this Diet.

Insulin sensitivity and control of blood sugar

Control of sugar can be improved through the consumption of fewer calories due to fasting and enhancement of the sensitivity of insulin. According to the clinical trial strategy done fasting is the best tool in balancing the sugar level.


Fasting and adaptation of ketosis diet have long-run benefits such as higher metabolic adaptations whereby training performance will increase since the fats are entirely burned hence fatigue. Additionally, muscle synthesis will be improved through heighten gains o muscle.

Mental Clarity

The brain is said to be the highest consumer of energy. Through fasting, the energy-producing meals will be broken down, ready to be utilized by the memory.

The Drawbacks of the intermittent fasting and Ketogenic Diet.

The use of artificial insulin may be costly to some individuals who will wish to control their sugar levels in their bodies. Also, some people may have side effects upon the use of insulin.

The Mediterranean Diet Plan

The Mediterranean diet is chosen because is the most attractive diet based on its advantages as compared to the other discussed diet.

The following is a Mediterranean diet for one week which is adjustable as per the preferences of the user.

DAYTIMEMEALS ( Type of Foods)
MondayBreakfast                                   Lunch   Dinner-Incorporate  Oats, Strawberries and Greek Yogurt -The whole –grain together with vegetables -Tuna salad mixed with Olive oil. Add some fruit for dessert
TuesdayBreakfast   Lunch   Dinner-Use Oatmeal together with raisins. -Tuna Salad leftover of the last night. -Use Salad with feta cheese, tomatoes and Olives.
WednesdayBreakfast     Lunch     Dinner-Do Omelet with onions, tomatoes and veggies and a piece of fruit. -Incorporate Whole grain sandwich with fresh vegetables and cheese. -The Mediterranean Lasagn.    
ThursdayBreakfast   Lunch   Dinner-Take Yogurt together with nuts and sliced fruits -Lasagne leftover from the previous night -Incorporate Broiled Salmon with vegetables and brown rice.  
FridayBreakfast   Lunch   Dinner-Vegetables and eggs fried in olive-oil -Take Greek-Yogurt with nuts, oats and strawberries -Incorporate Grilled lamb with baked potato and salad
SaturdayBreakfast   Lunch   Dinner-Take Oatmeal with apple, nuts and raisins -Use the Whole gran together vegetables -Incorporate Mediterranean pizza with wheat mixed with olives, vegetables and cheese.
SundayBreakfast   Lunch   Dinner-Omelet with Olives and veggies -Take previous night leftover pizza -Incorporate grilled chicken with potato and vegetables. Add fruit for dessert.


Berry, E. M. (2019). Sustainable food systems and the Mediterranean diet. Nutrients11(9), 2229.

Brytek-Matera, A. (2020). Restrained eating and vegan, vegetarian and omnivore dietary intakes. Nutrients12(7), 2133.

Fedorovich, S. V., Voronina, P. P., & Waseem, T. V. (2018). Ketogenic diet versus ketoacidosis: what determines the influence of ketone bodies on neurons?. Neural regeneration research13(12), 2060.

Gunnars, K. (2017). Mediterranean diet 101: A meal plan and beginner’s guide.

Kalantar-Zadeh, K., & Moore, L. W. (2019). Does kidney longevity mean healthy vegan food and less meat or is any low-protein diet good enough?. Journal of Renal Nutrition29(2), 79-81.

Martini, D. (2019). Health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

Scannell, N., Villani, A., Mantzioris, E., & Swanepoel, L. (2020). Understanding the Self-Perceived Barriers and Enablers toward Adopting a Mediterranean Diet in Australia: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Framework. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(24), 9321.

Stockman, M. C., Thomas, D., Burke, J., & Apovian, C. M. (2018). Intermittent fasting: is the wait worth the weight?. Current obesity reports7(2), 172-185.

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