Introduction

Obesity is a severe threat to the health of the public, graver than the narcotic epidemic. It is associated with chronic illnesses, including type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and malignant growth.  Obesity represents 18 percent of all deaths among Americans between the ages 40 to 85, as indicated by a recent report testing the overall intelligence among researchers, which had put the rate at around 5 percent (Hales, et al., 2018). The data implies that obesity is equivalent to cigarette smoking as a general wellbeing risk. It kills one of five Americans and is a leading preventable reason for death in Americans. The corpulence crisis might be less lethal than the narcotic endemic, but it has been associated with malignant growth, which causes around 7 percent of disease-related deaths. This number does exclude deaths from the numerous other ailments related to weight. Obese individuals have a likely hood of 1.5 to 2.5 of dying from coronary illness than individuals with an average body mass index. There are likewise considerable economic losses related to heftiness. The clinical expenses of preventing, diagnosing and treatment are assessed at $147 billion of every 2008 dollars. Diminished economic productivity adds to these misfortunes (Bluher, 2019).

Obesity definition

According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, overweight and heftiness should be founded on the measure of excess fats in the body, which possesses health risks. There is no exact definition present for obesity—the measurement of stature and weight help to survey the general wellbeing and nutritional status of adults (Hales, et al., 2018). Obesity can be characterized by Body Mass Index (BMI), determined as weight in kilograms/stature meters squared. In the United States, the normal adult man has a BMI of 26.6 while an average adult lady has a BMI of 26.5 (Bluher, 2019).

Role community nurses

The essential job of community health nurses is to give therapy to patients.  They also offer education to local area individuals about keeping up their wellbeing to diminish sicknesses and deaths. They plan instructive congregations, give out fliers, do screenings on various diseases, apportion drugs and give immunizations (Bluher, 2019). Besides, they may disseminate wellbeing related items like condoms and pregnancy tests. Instances of some medical problems that local area wellbeing attendants attempt to control or dispose of are:  diseases and sexually transmitted illnesses, heftiness, inadequate nutrition, substance misuse, smoking, teenage pregnancies (Wilfley, et al., 2017).

Risks cardiovascular disease

The fundamental danger for cardiovascular disease is firstly hypertension; the mother is already hypertensive and is on two hypertensive medications. Hypertension causes the pulse is excessively high, which can easily damage the blood vessels and the heart (Bluher, 2019). Secondly, being overweight or obese poses a danger of developing DiabetesDiabetes and hypertension, the two of which are the main risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. One is at risk of developing cardiovascular disease if their body mass index (BMI) is 25 or above or for a man a 94cm (around 37 inches) or more for the waist measurement, or for a lady with a waist measurement of 80cm (about 31.5 inches) or more. Both Maria and the mother are obese, which possess a risk for developing cardiovascular disease (Hales, et al., 2018). Thirdly, Elevated cholesterol can clog the veins making them too tight and increases the danger of building up blood coagulation. Maria’s mother has a lipid disorder, and she is on treatment. Fourthly is DiabetesDiabetes, which is a long-lasting condition that causes the glucose level to be excessively high (Doenges, et al. 2016). High glucose levels can damage the veins, making them bound to get narrow. Numerous individuals with type 2 diabetes are additionally overweight or corpulent, which is likewise a danger factor for cardiovascular disease. Maria’s father has DiabetesDiabetes and on treatment. More history should be taken about smoking in the family since its use is a critical danger factor for cardiovascular disease. The harmful substances in tobacco can harm and thin the veins (Wilfley, et al., 2017). Inactivity itself is a risk factor for hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels and being overweight, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  Maria’s family might be practicing consistently to help keep the heart stable. The family background of cardiovascular conditions should be explored. If there is a positive history in the family for cardiovascular disease, getting it is high. Other factors that cause cardiovascular diseases are more than 50years, the male gender, diet, and alcohol intake (Bluher, 2019).

Social determinants of health

Social determinants of health include accessibility of assets to address everyday issues, including safe food, admittance to education and job opportunities, accessibility to medical care services, the nature of education and occupation training, accessibility of locally available resources for recreation opportunities and leisure activities (Doenges, et al. 2016) . Other factors that are social determinants of health include Transportation choices, public security, social help, standard practices and mentalities, openness to wrongdoing, savagery, social problems, financial conditions, private isolation, language/Literacy, admittance to broad communications and arising advancements and culture (Hales, et al., 2018).

Concepts of health promotion and risk reduction

Health promotion and infection counteraction programs center on keeping individuals healthy. Health promotion initiatives plan to connect and engage people and networks to choose sound health practices and change their lifestyle to reduce the danger of getting chronic illness and different morbidities (Hales, et al., 2018). These programs frequently address social determinants of health, which impact modifiable danger practices. Social determinants of wellbeing are the financial, social, cultural, and political conditions in which individuals are conceived, grow up, and live that influence wellbeing status. Modifiable danger practices incorporate, for instance, tobacco use, helpless dietary patterns, and absence of actual work, which add to the improvement of chronic illness. It involves raising awareness to the public on sound health practices. Communication entails public service announcements, health fairs, vast media campaigns, and newspapers (Doenges, et al. 2016) . Education is used to empower and instill change in behaviour and activities through giving information.  Incorporate courses, training, and support groups are used to provide knowledge. Health promotion works by making deliberate changes through improved laws, rules, s and guidelines, practical authoritative frameworks, supporting, making accessible, and empowering healthy decisions (Bluher, 2019).

 Behavioural change models to address health promotion

I would use the behavioural change model, a preventive methodology, focusing on how people live and its effects on health. This approach tries to convince people to embrace acceptable healthy lifestyle practices, utilize preventive health amenities, and assume liability for their health. This approach blames the victim for not taking responsibility for their health.  This model depends on the conviction that giving individuals’ information will change their beliefs, perspectives, and practices (Hales, et al., 2018).

Recent data about obesity in children and adults

In 2011–2014, the predominance of obesity was more than 36% in grown-ups and 17% in youth. The commonness of heftiness was higher in the women gender (38.3%) than in the men gender (34.3%). Among all adolescents, no distinction was seen by sex. The pervasiveness of obesity was higher among the middle-aged (40.2%) and the elderly (37.0%) grown-ups (32.3%) (Doenges, et al., 2016). The commonness of stoutness was higher among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic dark, and Hispanic grown-ups and youth than among non-Hispanic Asian adults and youth. From 1999 through 2014, stoutness pervasiveness increased among adults and youth. In any case, among youth, commonness didn’t change from 2003–2004 through 2013–2014(Hales, et al., 2018).

How to plan for community nursing intervention

There is a necessity to plan for a community nursing intervention in this community. To plan and execute health programs at a community area, the community nurse needs to know how the community functions,  how it is coordinated, who its key chiefs are, how the local site has moved toward having the same problems, and how different projects have been presented before (Doenges, et al. 2016). The medical professional in charge of the community intervention process towards a particular health need should collaborate with the local area individuals. To be a viable change specialist in applying the nursing process, the attendant should know the local area and how it functions and community techniques that encourage change. Sources of funds will include applying for government ‘block’ financing, a conventional subsidizing model where the public authority gives grants to affirmed providers to convey community programs. Another source is foundation support for project support.  Another source is from corporations and organizations and charitable trusts and establishments (Bluher, 2019).

Evaluation of the community-level intervention

It would be essential to know the evaluation’s goal, which is to promote healthy choices among the people in the community. The next step is to find out who the target population is, which is the people of the community where Maria lives. After the target population, one should find the design to use in the intervention (Mensah, et al., 2019).  Next is to find evaluation methods that include evaluating the clinical data collected, analyzing progress data information, climate changes observation and knowing which population was more involved with the adults or the youth (Bluher, 2019).

Social marketing to change health behaviours

I will use cultural norms to change health behaviours. Standards give one a normal thought of acting and providing requests and consistency in the public arena. For instance, in Maria’s community, 56% of the students with BMI 25.0 to <30 and 18% with BMI 30.0 or higher. The possibility of standards gives a vital aspect for understanding social impact and similarity specifically. In this community, there must be a norm that influences the higher rates of obesity (Mensah, et al., 2019).

In conclusion, obesity poses a health risk for chronic diseases in the world today. The cases of obesity have gone up due to an increase in a sedentary lifestyle. Many people with hypertension, DiabetesDiabetes are more likely to obese, of which the two diseases possess a risk for cardiovascular disease (Bluher, 2019).

(Hales, et al., 2018)

(Mensah, et al., 2019)

(Doenges, et al. 2016)

(Bluher, 2019)

(Wilfley, et al., 2017)

References

Craig M. Hales, Cheryl D. Fryar, & Margaret D. Carroll. (2018, April 24). Trends in obesity prevalence in US youth and adults, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2676543/?oRef=vuukle

George A. Mensah, Gregory A. Roth, & Valentin Fuste. (2019, November 19). The global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors: 2020 and beyond. Retrieved from https://www.jacc.org/doi/full/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.10.009

Marilynn E Doenges, Mary Frances, & Alice C Murr. (2016). Nursing diagnosis manual. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=T6tqCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=how+to+plan+for+community+nursing+interventions+2016&ots=0-04PjY1vE&sig=jK805WMurBB7XOkenURN0syq-oc&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=how%20to%20plan%20for%20community%20nursing%20interventions%202016&f=false

Mathias Bluher. (2019, February 27). Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0176-8?s=03

Wilfley, D. E., Hayes, J. F, Van Buren, D. J, & Epstein, L. H. (2017.). APA PsycNet. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-54176-004

(Hales, et al., 2018)

(Mensah, et al., 2019)

(Doenges, et al. 2016)

(Bluher, 2019)

(Wilfley, et al., 2017)

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