Participial constructions are a convenient way to combine ideas into a more tightly-woven grammatical pattern. They create a smoother flow to writing that might otherwise appear choppy. 

Example 1: Sue decided not to go with her friends to the movie because she’d already seen the film twice. 

Using a participial construction, we obtain this: 

Having already seen the film twice, Sue decided not to go with her friends to the movie. 

Example 2: Since Zheng completed his full CFA certification, he’s been offered five very lucrative jobs. 

Using a participial construction, we obtain this: 

Since completing his full CFA certification, Zheng has been offered five very lucrative jobs. 

PRACTICE SENTENCES WITH PARTICIPLE PHRASES: In the following exercise, combine the two given sentences using a participle: 

1 Your rewrite will be done as extra credit. This means it will be added to your other journal assignment. 

2 Planting and replanting the same crops strips fields of nutrients. This creates vulnerability to pests and heavy reliance on pesticides. 

3 The potential formulation exploits this feature to maximum advantage. A vector problem is thus reduced to a scalar one. 

4 The ion-implantation process causes damage to the semiconductor crystal lattice. This damage leaves many of the implanted ions electrically inactive. 

5 Sometimes sodium chloride is used in this reaction as a catalyst. It accelerates the formation of products. 

6 The rods and the cement form a tight union. This union produces a structure that is strong and resilient enough to withstand some rocking motion. 

7 Captions are shown at a rate of approximately 120 words per minute. This provides a challenge to even the most accomplished developing readers. 

8 Chinese privet (Lingustrum sinense) is very adaptable. It can grow in either sun or shade. 

9 The architecture must be flexible. It must allow for the addition of new functionality. 

10 Fire ants displace many wildlife species. This displacement leads to negative effects on the ecology of effected areas. 

11 Researchers at Stanford University documented such signals before the 1989 Loma Prieta quake, which devastated the San Francisco Bay Area. The quake demolished houses, fractured freeways, and killed 63 people. 

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