Research Paper Part II (Literature Review) I Will Attached 1 Research Papers That’s Written And 1 Empericial Study. You Will Take Both Papers And Combind And Tweek Them Into One Final Literature Review Paper Of 10 Pages. Plus References, Citations, APA


  •  Integrate what you learn from each of these studies, and summarize the strengths and limitations of this research in your area of interest. In this section, discuss the relationship between what you learned from the empirical literature review and practice wisdom. Other topics you may address in this section of the assignment include the role of theory in the research you reviewed, the significance of this body of knowledge as a whole for social welfare policy and/or social work practice, and the inclusiveness of various sub-groups in the study samples.
  •  Provide a brief summary of “what we know” from the research you reviewed. Then identify what we don’t know on the basis of the empirical literature to date. Does the research you reviewed adequately answer the research question(s) you formulated in Part I of this assignment? For some groups of people or everyone? In one place or many places? Under what conditions? What additional studies need to be planned to further our knowledge in your area of interest?
  •  Given what you have learned, provide a description of gaps in empirical knowledge, and how these gaps could be addressed in the future. How could the research you have reviewed, and your identification of knowledge gaps, impact social work practice? How could future research be informed by social work practice?

Format and other requirements: Assignment #4b (Part II) should be no longer than 10 typed pages, 12-point Times New Roman font, double spaced with one-inch margins. Citing sources of information is required in this assignment. Be sure to provide full APA formatted references. 





Is Poverty A Predictor of Child Abuse?

Child Abuse


The World Health Organization estimates that almost three in four children-or 300 million children aged 2–4 years are routinely subjected to physical violence and psychological harassment at the hands of either their parents or caregivers. The organization adds that one in five women and one in 13 men reported having been sexually assaulted as a child aged 0-17. There are now around 120 million girls and young women below 20 who have had unwanted sexual intercourse. It is also estimated that 40 to150 deaths per year are recorded in children under 18 years of age, some of which are believed to be attributed to child maltreatment. This figure almost definitely underestimates the true magnitude of the epidemic, as a large proportion of child abuse fatalities are wrongly attributed to slips, fires, and drowning. Effects of childhood maltreatment include compromised lifetime physical and mental wellbeing, and social and workplace implications will potentially slow down economic and social growth in the nation. A mistreated child is far more inclined to harass people as an adult. Such aggression is carried on across one generation to the next (WHO, 2020).

Child abuse is the exploitation and neglect of children under the age of 18. It encompasses all types of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, negligence, mismanagement, and commercial or other violence that result in severe or potential harm to the individual’s wellbeing, wellbeing, survival, development, or integrity of the child in the context of care, confidence, or power. Preventing childhood maltreatment before it begins is feasible and requires a multi-pectoral solution. Practical prevention approaches include helping parents and teaching healthy parenting habits and strengthening laws that prohibit coercive punishment. Continuing caring for children and families can reduce the possibility of repeated maltreatment and decrease the occurrence of maltreatment (WHO, 2020).

Types of Child Abuse


Neglect is the most prevalent type of recorded neglect and the most common cause of death for neglected children. The Office for Child Abuse and Neglect characterized neglect as failure to meet the child’s fundamental physical, social, educational, and cognitive or medical needs. Physical negligence is the inability to provide sufficient food, clothes, shelter, sanitation, safety, or supervision. Failure to provide caring, comfort, empathy, social assistance, or treatment when appropriate is emotional negligence. Medical negligence is a pause in or failure to obtain medical attention, resulting in harm to the infant’s wellbeing (McDonald, 2007).

Emotional Abuse

Emotional abuse outcomes in identifiable damages, such as disrupted psychological growth and infant development. Several subtypes of emotional violence include alienation, loneliness, terror, denial, psychological disponible, exploitation, and the child’s inadequate desires or demands. Behavioral patterns that may raise concerns about the risk of emotional violence include social isolation, extreme frustration, or hostility, eating disorders, inability to succeed, developmental delay, and emotional disruptions. In certain places, the vulnerability to intimate partner abuse at home has also been deemed a cause of emotional damage to the child (McDonald, 2007).

Physical Abuse

Child physical assault is a child’s non-accidental disability. Many jurisdictions apply other criteria to the legal description, such as the age of the abuser and the severity of the injuries. Injuries cause cuts and bruises, blunt force trauma, fracturing, head injuries, trembling, burns, and poisoning. Data on the frequency of child physical abuse (CPA) in the United States was collected from child protection agencies and nationwide surveys. These statistics show that almost 3 million children remain exploited and abandoned last year. Approximately 25% of those identified for suspected assault are prosecuted for physical abuse. The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) published a series of National Incidence Studies on Child Abuse and Neglected by assessing clinical monitoring standards. They observed that about 2.3/1000 children were physically assaulted. The 1995 Gallup poll approximated the CPA rate to be 49/1000 children, more than five times the NCCAN survey (Swenson, 2007).

Sexual abuse

Child sexual assault is characterized both scientifically and legally. Legally, child welfare and criminal legislation are in place. Federal child welfare legislation recognizes sexual harassment and exploitation to be a subsection of child abuse. Sexual assault can be defined as the work, use, manipulation, incitement, enticement, or intimidation of any child to participate in or assist any other person to engage in any sexually explicit activity or imitation of such behavior to create a visual representation of such conduct; or rape, harassment, adultery, or other means of sexual exploitation of children or incest with children (McDonald, 2007).

Effects of Child Abuse

Children may experience a range of emotional, psychological, and physical problems as a result of being harmed. These include low self-esteem, increased fear, guilt and self-blame, and distrust of adults. Children may also suffer from eating disorders, physical injuries, and death problems. Children subjected to violence and neglect are more likely to experience unsafe or disorganized attachment issues with their primary caregiver. Insecure attachments change the usual child development process. They can seriously impair a child’s ability to connect and interact with others. Child abuse is associated with problematic peer relationships in childhood and adolescence. Strong partnerships have also been established between child maltreatment and learning disabilities, and low academic performance. Abuse and neglect in early life can significantly impact the developmental capacity of children, especially in crucial areas of speech and speech. Maltreated children have less educational attainment than other classes of children (CFCA, 2014).


Treatment of child abuse and neglect depends on the extent of the abuse. Priority is given to providing a secure atmosphere for the child, including calling social workers or law enforcement agencies so that the child can be transported to a secure location where they feel safe. Once the infant is healthy, mental health providers and the psychiatrist can find a suitable treatment form. Therapy can help children understand their thoughts and emotions to learn how to deal with the consequences of violence. There are various forms of counseling available. Developmental therapy, to begin with, is a form of therapy that deals with how the infant develops and how the growth has been altered or blocked by trauma. Interpersonal therapy is a form of therapy that relates to how trauma has affected the infant’s relationship. Also, cognitive, and behavioral therapy deals with how battered children’s emotions and thoughts have affected their behavior.

Treatment activities can also concentrate on stopping child abuse and neglect from recurring. Federal, state, and municipal governments will assist with these efforts. Helping parents and children build closer relationships and informing parents of effective parenting strategies. They will also help by teaching parents to be emotionally supportive and assist those who may suffer. They can also help to build closer relationships and mutual ties. It is also imperative to teach children how to have more vital social and emotional skills.


Raise Awareness by Educating people about the realities of domestic abuse and violence. It can be done in workplaces, churches, schools, Adverts on social media, or Campaigns organized by Civil Society group and Governments. That helps to pass knowledge on Child Abuse, and Those Educated will be Advocates of Fighting Child Abuses. Documentation is also crucial. If one suspects child abuse being administered to a child, one should document what they see, location, date, and time. The benefits of filing a report to the relevant authorities. Documentation should be done in a non-biased manner and be factual hence helping to protect a child. One should try to understand His/her child and learn how children behave and what they can do at different ages. One should have a realistic expectation and reasonable if a child fell short (CDC, 2020).

It is also critical to choose the words that we tell children. Punishing or Angry language can leave profound emotional scars in a child for a lifetime and affect them mentally. Taking a Time Out byStopping if you begin to act out frustrations or other emotions physically. Try finding some help from someone or calling a Child Abuse Prevention hotline if you are worried about causing harm to your child. Parents need to support Children. Children are great imitators. They frequently model what they learn and experience from the adults in their lives. A child’s most significant role model is often the parent; hence, they may imitate what they see or hear what their parents are doing to say in their adult life with their spouses or partners, hence needing counseling, support, and service to children (CDC, 2020).


Social attitudes must change as we teach children about dangers they may face. Parents and other family members can help reduce child abuse by giving children space to talk freely. Law should be stringent and strict about child abuse, and Governments, NGOs, and international organizations can work together to understand the context of abuse, identify signs of abuse, and provide sensitive and emphatic care. Creation of a suitable environment for children to live freely. Awareness at various levels starting from the family to schools, and Parents should make a positive environment where they can understand their children and discuss problems without any hesitation.


A child is an individual who is 18 years and below. Child abuse has been a persistent problem that is experienced not only locally but also globally. Child abuse is the exploitation and neglect of children under the age of 18. It encompasses all types of physical and emotional ill-treatment and sexual abuse. The management of child abuse can be complicated and often require a multidisciplinary approach. Counseling services for the child and the caregivers should form part of the management regime. Therapy can help children understand their thoughts and emotions to learn how to deal with the consequences of violence. Identifying child abuse cases earlier helps ensure that children do not grow up to mistreat other people since they were raised in an environment that majorly consisted of violence.


Child abuse and neglect treatment | Pediatrics. (2018). Retrieved from

Child Family Community Australia. (2014). Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents. Retrieved from

McDonald, K. C. (2007, January). Child abuse: Approach and management. Retrieved from

Swenson, C. C. (2007). Encyclopedia of stress (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

World Health Organization. (2020). Child maltreatment. Retrieved from


Child Abuse and Neglect


Child welfare is one of the special areas of practice in social work. It is special in the context in which the principles and values that govern the social work profession align with policies that guide child welfare organizations. Child abuse is one of the major universal social problems that impact children from all types and levels of society. Child abuse can have a significant impact on the child’s personality growth. More so, it can affect the child’s adult behavior in later life. Therefore, it the role of the social workers to study the causes of abuse and treatment. Underlaying the efforts is the belief that all societies are responsible for creating an abuse-free society (Zeanah & Humphreys, 2018). This study aims to evaluate factors related to childhood abuse and neglect and social workers’ role in alleviating the problem.

Nature and scope of child abuse and neglect

Child abuse is a devastating social problem in society. While the legal definition of child abuse and neglect may vary across different states, there are four recognized classifications of child abuse and neglect. They are sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional maltreatment, and neglect. They neglect medical, educational, and other forms of neglect. Almost 700 000 children are abused every year in the United States. That is about 1 percent of the total number of kids. In 2019, it was estimated that 1770 children in the United States died because of child abuse and neglect. However, the data is incomplete because there are likely to be a lot of unreported cases (Krugman & Poland, 2019). The most prone victims of abuse and neglect are the youngest children. That is children who are in the first year of their life. WWW points out that in 2019 children of 3 years and below experienced a mistreatment rate of 16 per 1000. For children aged 4 to 7 years, the mistreatment rate was 12 per 1000 population. For 8 to 11 years, the mistreatment rate was at 8 per 1000 population. The mistreatment rate goes on decreasing as the children age up. It is the responsibility of child welfare authorities to ensures the safety of children in the country.

Historical Background

For a long time, children have been considered as the property of their parents. Therefore, this notion assumes that parents hold the power of life and death over their children. Throughout history, there have been social provisions that seek to protect orphans and the abandoned children from abuse and neglect. The provisions covered only the orphans and the disabled. However. It is in the last 150 years that the state has made efforts to protect the rights of children by overriding the rights of parents. That means that during the era of the industrial revolution and the invention and introduction of compulsory education attendance, most children from the age of 10 years and above led their lives not far similar to that of adults. However, even though things have changed in the modern generation, there remains a contest between children’s rights and parental rights in children’s welfare (Wright, 2017).

McGuigan et al., 2018, points out that while working on the topic of child abuse and neglect, it is important to consider cultural issues because some cultures have high tolerant levels than others. Different cultures have a varied age of adulthood, sexual maturity, and engaging in activities that can be considered a crime. Different cultures discipline their children in different ways. There is some culture in which the form of discipline is more severe than in other cultures.

Contextual and Societal factors that influence child abuse and neglect

Metcalfe et al., 2019, points out that there are varied models that focus on addressing the etiology of child mistreatment. However, there has been no enough empirical evidence to validate the commonly held belief that parental personality traits or psychopathology factors such as illness contribute to child abuse and neglect. However, there are several factors that have been a link to child maltreatment. Hoft and Haddad, 2017, point out that most maltreating parents are socially isolated. Social isolation is often characterized by a lack of poor social skills. Thus, social isolation leads to stressful moments that eventually generate alternative means to fill the gap. Violence is one of the means.

Hoft and Haddad, 2017, point out that poverty is a strong factor that is associated with child neglect. However, it is important to note that poverty does not equate to child neglect. It does not mean that parents lack the capacity to love and care for their children because they are poor. However, poverty restrains parents from meeting some of their children’s needs. Studies show that children from a family earning $ 25,000 in 2020 were 15 times more likely to experience varied forms of neglect than children from families earning $ 35 000 and above. This indicates that poverty has a strong correlation with child neglect.

Wright, 2017, points out that dissatisfaction with the role of parenting is another factor that is related to child abuse. The presented evidence argues that maltreating parents are non-accommodative to their children’s behavior. They usually perceive a sense of hostility in their children’s behavior, unlike so non-maltreating parents. More so, maltreating parents tend to find parenting less enjoyable and difficult than non-maltreating parents.

Researching child mistreatment is important because the study provides scientific information that can be utilized to solve a lot of individual and societal disorders. Child abuse and neglect precipitate problems such as poor academic performance, depression, deviant sexual behaviors, delinquency, etc. Second, the research is important because it provides insights and knowledge on how to help the victims of child abuse and neglect. Third, the research serves to reduce long-term economic costs directed in treating the effects of child abuse and neglect, such as mental issues and violence cases. Fourth, the research presents empirical evidence that can be utilized to improve the quality of service in legal and child welfare organizations. Child welfare advocates, social service personnel, judges, etc., make a lot of decisions entailing child abuse and neglect. It is by making informed decisions that there can be effective in improving outcomes of cases related to child abuse. Lastly, it is by studying the etiology of child abuse and mistreatment that a scientific-based program to prevent the incidence can be established (Bartlett et al., 2017). The program will serve to counteract factors that breed child abuse and neglect in coming generations.

The role of social workers

What is the role of social workers in addressing child abuse and neglect? Social workers make a professional taskforce responsible for offering therapeutical programs to the victims of abuse and their families. More so, they also work together with the perpetrators and their families. They serve in conducting a clinical evaluation of the victims by utilizing diagnostic measures. Also, the conduct forensic investigations of the cause of abuse and evaluate the patterns of abuse. It is by doing so that they are able to detect the likelihood of the reoccurrence of abuse and neglect from serious perpetrators. The identification of such patterns is hugely important because it helps in putting in the right measures before the next incidence could occur. The other role is to make reports to parents, schools, courts, and child protection agencies so that better measures and policies can be implemented to curb the issue. Lastly, they offer counseling and psychosocial therapy to individuals, families, and groups involved in child abuse and neglect cases (McGuigan et., 2018).


Child abuse and neglect is a serious problem in the society. People have shifted from rural to urban life, where it is more sophisticated to track instances of child abuse and neglect. Improved mechanisms and strategies need to be put in place to match the sophistication and ensure that our society is free from child abuse and neglect.


Bartlett, J. D., Kotake, C., Fauth, R., & Easterbrooks, M. A. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter? Child abuse & neglect63, 84-94.

Hoft, M., & Haddad, L. (2017). Screening children for abuse and neglect: A review of the literature. Journal of forensic nursing13(1), 26-34.

Krugman, R. D., & Poland, L. (2019). Disrupting social norms: Eliminating child abuse and neglect in our lifetime. Child and adolescent social work journal36(1), 15-17.

McGuigan, W. M., Luchette, J. A., & Atterholt, R. (2018). Physical neglect in childhood as a predictor of violent behavior in adolescent males. Child Abuse & Neglect79, 395-400.

Metcalfe, R. E., Guidinger, C. L., & Stormshak, E. A. (2021). The Family Check-Up: Ecological Family-Based Assessments in the Context of Potential Child Abuse or Chaotic Home Environments. Journal of Health Service Psychology, 1-13.

Wright, K. (2017). Remaking collective knowledge: An analysis of the complex and multiple effects of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect74, 10-22.

Zeanah, C. H., & Humphreys, K. L. (2018). Child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry57(9), 637-644.

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